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Li Chen

Athletics-related professional associations are nonprofit and formed voluntarily by athletic administrators or coaches. Because membership enrollment and retention are critical to organizational survival, factors affecting members’ participation should be studied to aid managerial decisions. This study was designed to test a conceptual model and develop a valid Membership Incentive Scale (MIS) to identify important membership incentives. The MIS is based on an underlying theoretical framework and empirical support. Participants (N = 415) from 15 professional associations completed a national survey. The results of factor and data analyses supported the four-factor (Utilitarian, Purposive, Solidary, Informative) incentive model, demonstrated the factorial validity and internal-consistency reliability of the 14-item MIS, and explored the most important factor (Informative Incentives). This article provides an important tool for managers to use to access essential membership incentives for the associations studied, as well as a reference for further studies of membership incentives for these and other organizations.

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Fengjuan Li, Junjun Chen and Miles Baker

While there have been many studies into students’ attitudes toward Physical Education at the school level, far fewer studies have been conducted at the university level, especially in China. This study explored 949 students’ attitudes toward their university Physical Education experiences in four Chinese universities. An intercorrelated model of students’ attitudes toward Physical Education comprised of five dimensions, namely Physical Fitness, Self-Actualization and Social Development, Physical Education Curriculum, Physical Education Teachers, and Physical Education Teaching, was conceptually and empirically developed and tested using exploratory and confirmatory factor analysis. The overall findings suggested that the students had moderately positive attitudes toward Physical Education. More specifically, the findings indicated that students’ attitudes had a significantly positive moderate association with their current participation, a small association with their intended lifelong participation in physical activity outside school, and a significantly positive moderate association with their Physical Education academic achievement. Implications for Physical Education teacher training and curriculum modifications are discussed.

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Jinhui Li, Chen Li, Bing Xun Chia, Xinran Chen, Tan Phat Pham and Yin-Leng Theng

This study examined how different types of social interaction and competitive information in exergaming affect older adults’ motivation and attitude toward playing exergames. A 2 (time: pre- vs. posttest) × 3 (social interaction: play alone vs. play with peer vs. play with youth) × 2 (competition: competition informed vs. noncompetition informed) mixed experiment was conducted with 319 Singaporean older adults over 6 weeks through a three-way analysis of variance. Social interaction was found to significantly affect the changes of extrinsic motivation over time, while competitive information affected intrinsic motivation significantly. The results showed significant three-way interaction effects between time, social interaction, and competitive information on older adults’ extrinsic and intrinsic motivations. The changes of attitude over time were not affected by either social interaction or competitive information. The findings contribute to aging research and advance the knowledge of potential factors that promote the effective implementation of exergames for community older adults.

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Xiaofen Deng Keating, Prithwi Raj Subramaniam, Rulan Shangguan and Li Chen

This study aimed to examine changes in physical education (PE) programs nation-wide from 2006 to 2010 by analyzing the data reported in the Shape of the Nation published by the National Association for Sport and Physical Education. Means and standard deviations for numeric variables in the reports were computed. For categorical variables, percentages were calculated. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon test. The data from this study indicate a significant change in elementary PE as more states have mandated elementary PE and licensed elementary PE teachers. Significant increases in required PE units for high school graduation were also noted, indicating a positive change toward enhancing high school PE. However, the percentages of states with funding for professional development and required PE coordinator decreased significantly, suggesting that more work needs to be done if school PE is to provide the help and support requested by public health agencies.

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Yongming Li, Margot Niessen, Xiaoping Chen and Ulrich Hartmann

Context: Different relative aerobic energy contribution (WAER%) has been reported for the 2 women’s Olympic kayaking disciplines (ie, 200 and 500 m). Purpose: To investigate whether the adopted method of energy calculation influences the value of WAER% during kayaking time trials. Methods: Eleven adolescent female kayakers (age 14 ± 1 y, height 172 ± 4 cm, body mass 65.4 ± 4.2 kg, VO2peak 42.6 ± 4.9 mL·min−1·kg−1, training experience 1.5 ± 0.3 y) volunteered to participate in 1 incremental exercise test and 2 time trials (40 and 120 s) on the kayak ergometer. A portable spirometric system was used to measure gas metabolism. Capillary blood was taken from the ear lobe during and after the tests and analyzed for lactate afterward. The method of modified maximal accumulated oxygen deficit (m-MAOD) and the method based on the fast component of oxygen-uptake off-kinetics (PCr-La-O2) were used to calculate the energy contributions. Results: The anaerobic energy portions from m-MAOD were lower than those from PCr-La-O2 in the 40-s (41.9 ± 8.8 vs 52.8 ± 4.0 kJ, P > .05) and 120-s (64.1 ± 27.9 vs 68.2 ± 10.0 kJ, P > .05) time trials, which induced differences of WAER% between m-MAOD and PCr-La-O2 (36.0% vs 30.0% in 40 s, P > .05; 60.9% vs 57.5% in 120 s, P > .05). Conclusions: The reported different WAER% in women’s Olympic kayaking could be partly attributed to the adopted method of energy calculation (ie, m-MAOD vs PCr-La-O2). A fixed method of energy calculation is recommended during the longitudinal assessment on the relative energy contribution in women’s Olympic kayaking.

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Weidong Li, Ping Xiang, Yung-Ju Chen, Xiuye Xie and Yilin Li


The purposes of this study were to: (a) examine the impact of the Silverman and Solmon article (1998) on how researchers handle the unit of analysis issue in their field-based intervention research in physical education in the United States and summarize statistical approaches that have been used to analyze the data, and (b) provide recommendations for future field-based intervention research and related statistical analysis.


We identified and coded 50 peer-reviewed, field-based intervention research articles with a coding template, published in Journal of Teaching in Physical Education and Research Quarterly for Exercise and Sport from 1998 to January 2016.


Our findings showed that 60% of the articles disregarded the unit of analysis and 80% of the articles applied the interventions to classes/groups, but used individual students as unit of analysis. Eight statistical modeling and analysis approaches were used to address the unit of analysis issue.


These findings provide first empirical evidence that the Silverman and Solmon 1998 article had limited impact on how researchers handle unit of analysis in their field-based intervention research in physical education. This suggests that the issue of unit of analysis remains largely unsolved. To address this problem, two experimental designs and corresponding statistical analysis methods were recommended.

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Ya-Chen Liu, Wen-Wen Yang, I-Yao Fang, Hope Li-Ling Pan, Wei-Han Chen and Chiang Liu

Outdoor fitness equipment (OFE) is installed in parks to promote health, particularly among seniors. However, no quantitative study has investigated its effectiveness. Therefore, this study aimed to examine the effectiveness of 12 weeks of OFE training on functional fitness in seniors. Forty-two active seniors were recruited and randomly assigned into OFE and control groups. The OFE group underwent 12 weeks of training using popular OFE for cardiorespiratory function, flexibility, and strength, whereas participants in the control group were asked to maintain their previous lifestyles. The senior fitness test was assessed before and after the 12-week period. Unexpectedly, the results showed no significant improvement within or between the groups after the 12-week training in all parameters (p > .05). In conclusion, the 12-week OFE training failed to enhance functional fitness among active seniors. Potential reasons for the limited training effects might be lack of resistance components and diversity of the OFE design and installation.

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Ching-Yi Wang, Ming-Hsia Hu, Hui-Ya Chen and Ren-Hau Li

To determine the test–retest reliability and criterion validity of self-reported function in mobility and instrumental activities of daily living (IADL) in older adults, a convenience sample of 70 subjects (72.9 ± 6.6 yr, 34 male) was split into able and disabled groups based on baseline assessment and into consistently able, consistently disabled, and inconsistent based on repeat assessments over 2 weeks. The criterion validities of the self-reported measures of mobility domain and IADL-physical subdomain were assessed with concurrent baseline measures of 4 mobility performances, and that of the self-reported measure of IADL-cognitive subdomain, with the Mini-Mental State Examination. Test–retest reliability was moderate for the mobility, IADL-physical, and IADL-cognitive subdomains (κ = .51–.66). Those who reported being able at baseline also performed better on physical- and cognitive-performance tests. Those with variable performance between test occasions tended to report inconsistently on repeat measures in mobility and IADL-cognitive, suggesting fluctuations in physical and cognitive performance.

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Guohua Zheng, Xin Zheng, Junzhe Li, Tingjin Duan, Kun Ling, Jing Tao and Lidian Chen

This study investigated the effects of Tai Chi compared with no exercise control on the cerebral hemodynamic parameters and other health-related factors in community older adults at risk of ischemic stroke. A total of 170 eligible participants were randomly allocated to Tai Chi or control group. The cerebral hemodynamic parameters and physical fitness risk factors of cardiovascular disease were measured at baseline, 12 weeks, and 24 weeks. After the 12-week intervention, Tai Chi significantly improved the minimum of blood flow velocity (BFVmin); BFVmean; pulsatility index and resistance index of the right anterior cerebral artery; and BFVmax, BFVmin, and BFVmean parameters of the right middle cerebral artery. Tai Chi training also decreased triglyceride, fasting blood glucose, and homocysteine levels, and improved balance ability. Therefore, the supervised 12-week Tai Chi exercise had potential beneficial effects on cerebral hemodynamics, plasma risk factors, and balance ability in older community adults at risk of ischemic stroke.

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ZhiWei Liu, Ting Chen, Mingkang Shen, Kai Li, ChunJie Ma, Antonnette Ketlhoafetse and XiangYun Liu

Benign prostatic hyperplasia and its associated lower urinary tract symptoms seriously affect both the physical and mental health of older men. In order to determine the efficiency of Chinese Qigong Yi Jin Jing on prostate health in older individuals, thirty participants were randomized into either an Yi Jin Jing group (n = 15) or a control group (n = 15). After the 6-month intervention, the Yi Jin Jing group showed a significant decrease in international prostate symptom score and a significant increase in maximal urinary flow rate (compared with the control group p = .005, p = .001, respectively). Also, testosterone level increased and estrogen/testosterone ratio decreased in the Yi Jin Jing group (compared with the baseline p = .004, p = .002, respectively); estrogen level and estrogen/testosterone ratio were lower in the Yi Jin Jing group (compared with the control group p = .029, p = .012, respectively). The results showed that Yi Jin Jing is a promising way to reduce the risk of benign prostatic hyperplasia-lower urinary tract symptoms in older men.