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  • Author: Cheryl A. Lovelady x
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David Travis Thomas, Laurie Wideman and Cheryl A. Lovelady

Purpose:

To examine the effect of yogurt supplementation pre- and postexercise on changes in body composition in overweight women engaged in a resistance-training program.

Methods:

Participants (age = 36.8 ± 4.8 yr) with a body-mass index of 29.1±2.1 kg/m2 were randomized to yogurt supplement (YOG; n = 15) or isoenergetic sucrose beverage (CONT; n = 14) consumed before and after exercise for 16 wk. Participants were also instructed to reduce energy intake daily (–1,046 kJ) during the study. Body composition was assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry, waist circumference, and sagittal diameter. Strength was measured with 1-repetition maximum. Dietary recalls were obtained by a multipass approach using Nutrition Data System software. Insulin-like growth factor-1 and insulin-like growth-factor-binding protein-3 were measured with ELISA.

Results:

Significant weight losses of 2.6 ± 4.5 kg (YOG) and 1.2 ± 2.5 kg (CONT) were observed. Total lean weight increased significantly over time in both YOG (0.8 ± 1.2 kg) and CONT (1.1 ± 0.9 kg). Significant reductions in total fat (YOG = 3.4 ± 4.1 kg vs. CONT = 2.3 ± 2.4 kg) were observed over time. Waist circumference, sagittal diameter, and trunk fat decreased significantly over time without group differences. Both groups significantly decreased energy intake while maintaining protein intake. Strength significantly increased over time in both groups. No changes over time or between groups were observed in hormone levels.

Conclusions:

These data suggest that yogurt supplementation offered no added benefit for increasing lean mass when combined with resistance training and modest energy restriction.

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Heather L. Colleran, Andrea Hiatt, Laurie Wideman and Cheryl A. Lovelady

Background: During lactation, women may lose up to 10% of bone mineral density (BMD) at trabecular-rich sites. Previous studies show that resistance exercise may slow BMD; however, the long-term effects of exercise on BMD during lactation have not been reported. Objective: To evaluate the effect of two 16-week exercise interventions (4- to 20-wk postpartum) in lactating women at 1-year postpartum on lumbar spine, total body, and hip BMD. Methods: To increase sample size at 1-year postpartum, two 16-week exercise interventions were combined for analysis. At 4-week postpartum, 55 women were randomized to intervention group (weight bearing aerobic exercise and resistance exercise) or control group (no exercise) for 16-week, with a 1-year postpartum follow-up. BMD was measured by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Repeated-measures analysis of covariance was used to test for time and group differences for BMD controlling for prolactin concentration and dietary calcium at 1-year postpartum. Results: Change in lumbar spine BMD was significantly different over time and between groups from 4-week to 1-year postpartum, when controlling for prolactin concentration and dietary calcium. There were no significant differences between groups in total body and hip BMD. Conclusion: These results suggest that resistance exercise may slow bone loss during lactation, resulting in higher BMD levels at 1-year postpartum.

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Holiday A. Durham, Miriam C. Morey, Cheryl A. Lovelady, Rebecca J. Namenek Brouwer, Katrina M. Krause and Truls Østbye

Background:

Low physical activity (PA) during the postpartum period is associated with weight retention. While patterns of PA have been examined in normal weight women during this period, little is known about PA among overweight and obese women. The aim of this cross-sectional study was to investigate PA and determine the proportion of women meeting recommendations for PA.

Methods:

Women (n = 491), with a body mass index (BMI) ≥ 25 kg/m2 were enrolled in a behavioral intervention. PA was assessed at six weeks postpartum using the Seven-Day PA Recall.

Results:

Women averaged 923 ± 100 minutes/day of sedentary/ light and 33 ± 56 minutes/day of combined moderate, hard, and very hard daily activity. Women with a BMI ≥ 40 kg/m2 reported more time in sedentary/light activities and less hours of sleep than those with a lower BMI. Only 34% met national PA guidelines; this proportion was significantly lower among blacks (OR 0.5, CI 0.3−0.9).

Conclusions:

These overweight and obese postpartum women reported a large percentage of time spent in sedentary/light activity, and a high proportion failed to meet minimal guidelines for PA. Promotion of PA in the postpartum period should focus on reducing sedentary behaviors and increasing moderate PA.