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Elizabeth A. Baker, Mario Schootman, Cheryl Kelly and Ellen Barnidge

Background:

Previous research suggests that access to recreational resources might influence physical activity. Little research, however, has looked at both access to and the characteristics of recreational resources and physical activity.

Methods:

Access to recreational resources was assessed by counting the number of recreational resources in the geographic area. Resource characteristics were assessed through systematic observation (audits) or telephone interview of each resource. Access and characteristics in 2 counties in the St Louis, MO, metropolitan area with different prevalence rates of physical activity were compared using the critical-ratio (Z) test with P value for the difference between 2 independent proportions, given that the count and sample size were used to assess differences in access to equipment and presence of physical disorder. Financial accessibility was assessed for each facility.

Results:

Data indicated significant differences in access and characteristics between the 2 areas that mimic differences in levels of physical activity.

Conclusion:

Our findings suggest that both access to and characteristics of recreational resources can contribute to differential rates of physical activity.

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Cheryl Kelly, Min Lian, Jim Struthers and Anna Kammrath

Background:

There are few studies that aimed to find a relationship between transportation-related physical activity and neighborhood socioeconomic condition using a composite deprivation index. The purpose of this study is to assess the relationship of neighborhood walkability and socioeconomic deprivation with percentage of adults walking to work.

Methods:

A walkability index and a socioeconomic deprivation index were created at block group-level. The outcome variable, percentage of adults who walk to work was dichotomized as < 5% of the block group walking to work low and ≥ 5% of the block group walking to work as high and applied logistic regression to examine the association of walkability and socioeconomic deprivation with walking to work.

Results:

Individuals in the most walkable neighborhoods are almost 5 times more likely to walk to work than individuals in the least walkable neighborhoods (OR = 4.90, 95% CI = 2.80–8.59). After adjusting for neighborhood socioeconomic deprivation, individuals in the most walkable neighborhoods are almost 3 times more likely to walk to work than individuals in the least walkable neighborhoods (OR = 2.98, 95% CI = 1.62–5.49).

Conclusions:

Walkability (as measured by the walkability index) is a very strong indicator of walking to work even after controlling for neighborhood socioeconomic disadvantage.

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Kelly R. Holcomb, Cheryl A. Skaggs, Teddy W. Worrell, Mark DeCarlo and K. Donald Shelbourne

A paucity of information exists concerning reliability of the KT-1000 knee arthrometer (MEDmetric Corp., San Diego, CA) when used by different clinicians to assess the same anterior cruciate ligament-deficient patient. The purpose of this study was to determine the reliability and standard error of measurement of four clinicians who routinely report KT-1000 arthrometer values to referring orthopedic surgeons. Two physical therapists and two athletic trainers performed anterior laxity tests using the KT-1000 on 19 subjects. Intraclass correlation coefficients (ICC) and standard error of measurement (SEM) were used to determine reliability. Intratester ICC ranged from .98 to 1.0 and intratester SEM ranged from 0.0 to .28 mm. Intertester ICC and SEM for all four testers were .53 and 1.2 mm, respectively. A 95% confidence interval (M ± 1.96 × SEM) of the intertester variability ranged from −0.18 to 4.52 mm. Therefore, large intertester variation existed in KT-1000 values. Each facility should standardize testing procedures and establish intratester and intertester reliability for all clinicians reporting KT-1000 values.

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Ross C. Brownson, Cheryl M. Kelly, Amy A. Eyler, Cheryl Carnoske, Lisa Grost, Susan L. Handy, Jay E. Maddock, Delores Pluto, Brian A. Ritacco, James F. Sallis and Thomas L. Schmid

Background:

Environmental and policy approaches are promising strategies to raise population-wide rates of physical activity; yet, little attention has been paid to the development and prioritization of a research agenda on these topics that will have relevance for both researchers and practitioners.

Methods:

Using input from hundreds of researchers and practitioners, a research agenda was developed for promoting physical activity through environmental and policy interventions. Concept mapping was used to develop the agenda.

Results:

Among those who brainstormed ideas, 42% were researchers and 33% were practitioners. The data formed a concept map with 9 distinct clusters. Based on ratings by both researchers and practitioners, the policy research cluster on city planning and design emerged as the most important, with economic evaluation second.

Conclusions:

Our research agenda sets the stage for new inquiries to better understand the environmental and policy influences on physical activity.