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Hsiao-Yun Chang, Chen-Sheng Chen, Shun-Hwa Wei and Chi-Huang Huang


Fatigue of the shoulder rotator muscles may negatively affect joint position sense (JPS) and ultimately lead to injury.


Recovery of shoulder JPS after muscle fatigue.


A repeated-measures study.


Musculoskeletal research laboratory.


Thirteen subjects participated in joint position error tests and isokinetic concentric strength assessment in shoulder rotation, before and after rotator muscle fatigue.


Local muscle fatigue was induced using isokinetic concentric contractions of the shoulder rotator muscles.

Main Outcome Measurements:

Shoulder rotator strength and JPS error signals were measured before fatigue, immediately after fatigue, and every ten minutes thereafter for one hour.


Before shoulder rotation muscle fatigue, the accuracy of shoulder JPS was 2.79 ± 1.67 degrees. After muscle fatigue, the accuracy decreased to 6.39 ± 2.90 degrees. Shoulder JPS was influenced up to 40 minutes after muscle fatigue, but shoulder strength was only affected for 10 minutes after muscle fatigue.


Proprioceptive recovery was slower than strength following fatigue of the shoulder rotators.

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Yu-Kai Chang, Chien-Yu Pan, Feng-Tzu Chen, Chia-Liang Tsai and Chi-Chang Huang

Several studies have demonstrated that exercise helps reduce or prevent cognitive deterioration among older adults, and recent studies have further examined the effects of resistance-exercise training on cognition. The purpose of this review was to examine the role of resistance-exercise training on cognition in healthy older adults. Specifically, it describes the definition, health benefits, and the design of resistance-exercise training. The authors also review the research related to resistance exercises and cognition and found that this exercise modality may enhance specific cognitive performances. Next, they examine the potential mechanisms underlying resistance exercise and cognitive enhancement. Finally, they consider potential therapeutics and recommendations for further research on resistance-exercise training and cognition in older adults.