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Chia-Yuan Yu

Background:

Few studies have examined the associations among social cohesion, physical activity, and obesity in older adults. This study explored the influences of social cohesion and leisure-time physical activity on obesity in older adults, and tested whether these relationships varied by race/ethnicity and income level.

Methods:

A cross-sectional analysis of adults in the 2013 National Health Interview Study (NHIS) who were over 65 years of age (N = 7714) was used. Logistic regressions were performed to examine the impacts of social cohesion and physical activity on obesity, and the relative risks (RR) were reported.

Results:

The median age was 73 years old, and 59.8% of respondents were female; 23.8% met the recommended level of moderate physical activity. Neighborhood social cohesion was not associated with obesity for older adults. Meeting the recommended level of vigorous physical activity was related to a lower probability of obesity only for older Hispanic adults (RR = 0.41, 95% CI: 0.31 to 0.50), while older adults were less likely to be obese if they met the recommended level of moderate physical activity.

Conclusions:

Increasing the level of physical activity may profoundly reduce the probability of obesity for older adults. Moreover, the results implied the need for future physical activity interventions for minorities.

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Chia-Yuan Yu and Ayoung Woo

Background:

Parental safety concerns have been recognized as a critical determinant of adolescents’ physical activity. However, it is still uncertain what factors relate to parental safety concern, and how they, in turn, affect adolescents’ physical activity. This study explored the mediating relationships of parental safety concern on adolescents’ physical activity by considering personal, social, and built environmental factors.

Methods:

This cross-sectional analysis used the data from Growing Up in Ireland (GUI), a national study (N = 5212). A structural equation model (SEM) was used to evaluate the hypothesized framework.

Results:

50% of the adolescents engaged in at least 6 days of exercise every 14 days, at a rate of at least 20-minutes per day. Adolescents were more physically active when parents perceived higher levels of safety. Parents perceived their children as safe when they lived in areas with easy access to play spaces. Moreover, adolescents with more close friends and more friends with whom they could play were more physically active and their parents perceived higher levels of safety.

Conclusions:

Parental safety concerns may profoundly affect adolescent’s physical activity and the resulting health outcomes. Programs and policies should consider the importance of parental safety concerns in promoting adolescents’ physical activity.

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Chia-Yuan Yu and Hsien-Chang Lin

Background:

Transit-related walking provides a potential opportunity to promote general walking behavior, yet few studies have examined this issue. Since people’s decisions tend to vary as they walk between home and transit and between transit and destination, this study separated trips made in each direction.

Purpose:

This study identified the associations between sociodemographics and the 2-step process of transit-related walking: 1) whether transit users walked for home-transit trip or transitdestination trip, and 2) the walking duration for home-transit trip or transit-destination trip among those who walked.

Methods:

This cross-sectional study used the 2009 National Household Travel Survey and used the Heckman 2-step selection model by including 4042 respondents (10,105 trips) who walked all portions for home-transit trip and 3756 (8075 trips) for transitdestination trip.

Results:

The mean walking duration for home-transit trips (7.60 minutes) was shorter than transit-destination trips (7.87 minutes). Hispanics were more likely to walk for both directions and had higher walking durations than did whites. Respondents living in low-income households were more likely to walk for home-transit trip, but not for transit-destination trips.

Conclusions:

This study illustrated several implications regarding to transit-related walking, such as creating short home-transit distances and targeting whites in promoting transit-related walking.

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Chia-Yuan Yu and Hsien-Chang Lin

Background:

Transit-related walking to work is a potential strategy for incorporating physical activity into daily life and promoting health benefits. This study estimated the transit-related walking time for work trips on the journey to and from work and examined the predictors of transit users who walked to/from transit and the workplace and those who walked 30 minutes or more per day.

Methods:

This study used the 2009 National Household Travel Survey and identified 772 subjects who took transit to/from work, 355 subjects who walked to/from transit and the workplace, and 145 subjects who walked 30 minutes or more per day among the 40,659 workers. Weighted logistic regressions were used for the analysis.

Results:

Of the people who walked to/from transit and the workplace, 40.9% walked 30 minutes or more per day. The weighted logistic regressions revealed that low-income groups and workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk to/from transit and the workplace. Workers living in high population density areas were more likely to walk 30 minutes or more per day.

Conclusions:

Transit-related walking to work provides an opportunity to increase physical activity levels and to meet the physical activity recommendations.

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Chia-Yuan Yu, Ayoung Woo, Christopher Hawkins and Sara Iman

Background: This study examined the association between residential segregation and obesity for Whites, African Americans, Hispanics, and Asians. This study considered 3 dimensions of residential segregation, isolation, dissimilarity, and concentration. Methods: By combining individual-level data from the Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance System and county-level data from the County Health Rankings and Roadmaps, the total sample size was 204,610 respondents (160,213 Whites, 21,865 African Americans, 18,027 Hispanics, and 4505 Asians) from 205 counties in the United States. Two-level logistic regression models were performed. Results: African Americans and Hispanics in counties with high levels of isolation, dissimilarity, and concentration were more likely to be obese; these relationships did not hold true for Whites and Asians. Counties with a higher percentage of populations with the income below the poverty line and a higher percentage of fast food restaurants in the county were associated with a higher likelihood of obesity for all racial/ethnic groups. African Americans and Hispanics with low levels of education and income were more likely to be obese. Conclusions: Residential segregation had a contextual influence on weight status, and the context of counties influenced racial/ethnic groups differently. Obesity reduction programs should consider the contextual influence on minority populations and target subgroups living in highly segregated areas.

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Chia-Yuan Yu, Su-I Hou and Jonathan Miller

Background: The purposes of this study were to (1) explore the influence of social capital and leisure-time physical activity on older adults’ physical and mental health and (2) test whether these relationships varied by living arrangement. Methods: This cross-sectional study used national data from the 2013 National Health Interview Study. The subjects included 7714 adults aged 65 years or older. Logistic regressions were used to predict the probability of subjects being overweight or obese. Ordinary linear regressions were performed to predict mental health outcomes. Results: Older adults living alone were more likely to report feeling sad (alone: 1.5; with others: 1.36), hopeless (alone: 1.25; with others: 1.18), and worthless (alone: 1.22; with others: 1.15). They were also more likely to experience lower levels of social support (alone: 3.24; with others: 3.30), trust (alone: 3.34; with others: 3.44), cohesion (alone: 2.95; with others: 2.98), and enjoy less leisure-time physical activity (alone: 49.85 min; with others: 64.64 min) than those living with others. Hispanic and divorced/separated older adults who lived alone were prioritized for health intervention. Conclusions: Older adults living alone had poorer mental health, less social capital, and engaged in less frequent leisure-time physical activity. Promoting social capital could improve mental health in older adults living alone.

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Chiao-Ling Hung, Yu-Kai Chang, Yuan-Shuo Chan, Chia-Hao Shih, Chung-Ju Huang and Tsung-Min Hung

The purpose of the current study was to examine the relationship between motor ability and response inhibition using behavioral and electrophysiological indices in children with ADHD. A total of 32 participants were recruited and underwent a motor ability assessment by administering the Basic Motor Ability Test-Revised (BMAT) as well as the Go/No-Go task and event-related potential (ERP) measurements at the same time. The results indicated that the BMAT scores were positively associated with the behavioral and ERP measures. Specifically, the BMAT average score was associated with a faster reaction time and higher accuracy, whereas higher BMAT subset scores predicted a shorter P3 latency in the Go condition. Although the association between the BMAT average score and the No-Go accuracy was limited, higher BMAT average and subset scores predicted a shorter N2 and P3 latency and a larger P3 amplitude in the No-Go condition. These findings suggest that motor abilities may play roles that benefit the cognitive performance of ADHD children.