This study compared moderate-to-vigorous physical activity (MVPA) of students with autism spectrum disorders (ASD) and students without disabilities during inclusive physical education and recess. Students (7–12 years) wore a uniaxial accelerometer in school for 5 consecutive school days. Results indicated a significant difference between settings, F(1,46) = 15.94,p < .01, partial eta2 = 0.26, observed power = 0.97. Students with and without ASD spent a higher proportion of time in MVPA during physical education than during recess, relative to the amount of time spent in those settings. In addition, structured physical education offers opportunities to increase students’ MVPA engagement.
Chien-Yu Pan and Georgia C. Frey
Youth age, parent modeling and support, and time spent in sedentary pursuits influence physical activity (PA) in youth without disabilities, but have not been explored in youth with autistic spectrum disorders (ASD). Therefore, these were selected as variables of interest to examine as PA determinants in this population.
Parents (n = 48) and youth (n = 30) wore an accelerometer for 7 d and parents completed a PA support questionnaire. Hierarchical multiple regression analysis was used to evaluate the influence of selected variables on youth PA.
Youth age (r22 = -0.59, P < 0.01) and sedentary pursuits (r22 = -0.47, P < 0.05) were negatively correlated with and accounted for 30% and 13% of the variance in youth PA, respectively. Parent variables did not significantly contribute to the explained variance.
Contrary to findings in youth without disabilities, parent PA and support were not predictors of PA in youth with ASD.
Jane Jie Yu, Chia-Liang Tsai, Chien-Yu Pan, Ru Li and Cindy Hui-Ping Sit
Background: To examine the relationship between physical activity (PA) and inhibition in boys and girls with motor impairments compared with children with typical development. Methods: The participants were 58 (26 motor impairments and 32 typical development) children aged 7–12 years who met the inclusion criteria. PA was assessed using accelerometers for 7 consecutive days. The time spent in PA of different intensity levels (light, moderate, and vigorous) were analyzed for weekdays and weekends. Using a visuospatial attention paradigm, inhibition was evaluated by the difference in reaction time between invalid and valid cue conditions. Generalized linear mixed models were used to determine the associations of inhibition with PA and motor ability by sex. Results: Boys and children with typical development had shorter reaction times in inhibition than girls (P < .001) and children with motor impairments (P < .05), respectively. Motor ability (b = 189.98) and vigorous PA on weekdays (b = −43.18) were significant predictors of inhibition in girls only. Conclusions: The results indicate a positive relationship between vigorous PA (on weekdays) and inhibition in children (girls), moderated by sex and motor ability. Effective interventions that promote vigorous PA for children both in and out of school should be designed to foster their executive function development.
Yu-Kai Chang, Chien-Yu Pan, Feng-Tzu Chen, Chia-Liang Tsai and Chi-Chang Huang
Several studies have demonstrated that exercise helps reduce or prevent cognitive deterioration among older adults, and recent studies have further examined the effects of resistance-exercise training on cognition. The purpose of this review was to examine the role of resistance-exercise training on cognition in healthy older adults. Specifically, it describes the definition, health benefits, and the design of resistance-exercise training. The authors also review the research related to resistance exercises and cognition and found that this exercise modality may enhance specific cognitive performances. Next, they examine the potential mechanisms underlying resistance exercise and cognitive enhancement. Finally, they consider potential therapeutics and recommendations for further research on resistance-exercise training and cognition in older adults.