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Chris Hopper

This pilot study examined self-concept and motor performance of hearing impaired boys and girls, ages 10 to 14. Subjects were 32 students from the Washington State School for the Deaf in Vancouver. Self-concept was measured using the Harter Self-Perception Profile consisting of six subscales: scholastic competence, social acceptance, athletic competence, physical appearance, behavioral conduct, and global self-worth. Motor performance was assessed with the 9-min run, sit-ups, sit and reach, Bass stick test, long jump, shuttle run, and catching a ball. Results of this pilot study indicated that students scored highest in the scholastic domain and lowest in the social acceptance domain. The physical appearance scale was most related to global self-worth. Those students who viewed themselves as athletically capable did best in the 9-min run. Girls scored higher than boys in athletic competence, physical appearance, and social acceptance domains.

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Steve Skaggs and Chris Hopper

The present paper is a review of the psychomotor abilities of individuals with visual impairments. It was found that cardiovascular endurance, muscular endurance, flexibility, and balance were significantly lower in individuals with visual impairments than in individuals with nonimpaired sight. Differences were found in physical fitness and psychomotor skills among individuals with visual impairments. Those individuals with a later onset of blindness and greater visual acuity performed best. Segregated environments appeared to foster superior physical fitness and psychomotor skills compared to integrated environments. Findings indicated that some physical fitness evaluation instruments produce inaccurate results in testing individuals with visual impairments. Suggestions for future research are included.

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Jeff Goodman and Chris Hopper

The present paper is a comparative review of studies assessing the psychomotor skills of hearing impaired children and youth. Studies have found balance deficiencies in hearing impaired subjects compared to hearing subjects. Research comparing hearing impaired and hearing subjects in motor performance have revealed contradictory results. Studies assessing physical fitness found hearing impaired subjects to be inferior to hearing subjects in a few items. Overall, hearing impaired subjects were found to be more similar than dissimilar in psychomotor behavior, with the exception of balance. Hearing impaired persons need to be individually evaluated in order to develop appropriate physical education programs; psychomotor deficits should not be automatically assumed. Results of studies are confounded by factors such as communication techniques, selection of measuring instruments, and educational placement. Directions for future research are suggested.

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Martin E. Block, Chris Hopper, Barry Lavay and William Merriman

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Virginia Foster Chadwick, Chris Hopper, Jeffrey A. McCubbin, John C. Ozmun and April Tripp

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Jim Decker, Patrick DiRocco, Chris Hopper, Barry Lavay and Terry L. Rizzo

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Allen W. Burton, Virginia Foster Chadwick, Jim Decker, Chris Hopper, Terry L. Rizzo, Kenneth H. Pitetti and Jeffrey McCubbin

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Martin E. Block, Sherry L. Folsom-Meek, Chris Hopper, William Merriman, Terry L. Rizzo, Ron Stahl, Paul R. Surburg and Abu Yilla

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Mark Jenks, E. William Vogler, Allen W. Burton, Virginia Foster Chadwick, Bernard V. Holland, Chris A. Hopper, Barry Lavay, William J. Merriman, John C. Ozmun, Katherine J. Riggen, Terry L. Rizzo, Paul R. Surburg and April Tripp