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  • Author: Chris M. Blanchard x
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Shane N. Sweet, Michelle S. Fortier and Chris M. Blanchard

Background:

Because motivation has been deemed a key barrier to physical activity, it is imperative that we know how motivational levels change over time and how that change relates to physical activity. Based in Self-Determination Theory, this study investigated fluctuations in physical activity and motivational regulations over 25 weeks and tested the relationship between these 2 variables.

Methods:

Data from the Physical Activity Counseling trial were examined. Inactive adults recruited from a primary care center (N = 120) answered motivation and physical activity questionnaires during the intervention and postintervention phases. Hierarchical linear modeling was used to test the hypotheses.

Results:

Quadratic changes were found for external regulation (γ20= 0.02, P < .05) and physical activity (γ20 = –2.64, P < .001), while identified (γ10= 0.04, P = .03) and intrinsic (γ10= 0.04, P = .01) regulations increased linearly over the course of the 25 weeks. Only identified regulation (γ30= 3.15, P = .01) and intrinsic motivation (γ30= 4.68, P < .001) were significantly and positively related with physical activity.

Conclusion:

Physical activity, external and identified regulations and intrinsic motivation changed over the 25 weeks. Intervention should aim at fostering identified regulation and intrinsic motivation as greater levels of these regulations were related with physical activity.

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Ryan E. Rhodes, Chris M. Blanchard and Rachel E. Blacklock

Age and gender are consistently related to physical activity (PA), yet theoretical explanation for these associations is scant. The present study compared the mean values and correlations of a population sample, divided by gender and age group, with respect to theory of planned behavior beliefs (behavioral, normative, and control) and PA. Participants were a sample (N = 6,739) of adults (M age = 49.65, SD = 16.04) who completed measures of social and health demographics, theory of planned behavior beliefs, and self-reported PA. Mean analyses identi-fed greater perceived control over PA for seniors than for young and middle-aged adults (η2 > .025). Belief–behavior correlations, however, were not different across age and gender in 24 of 26 tests (q < .19). Thus, PA beliefs are invariant across age and gender with the exception of mean levels of perceived control, which are lower among younger adults than older adults. Factors such as early parenthood and career demands were considered the likely reasons for differences. Overall, the evidence suggests that adapting theoretical models for specific age groups or based on gender may not be necessary.

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Travis Saunders, Nerissa Campbell, Timothy Jason, Gail Dechman, Paul Hernandez, Kara Thompson and Chris M. Blanchard

Background:

Although individual studies have reported on the number of steps/day taken by individuals with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), this evidence has not been systematically reviewed or synthesized.

Methods:

MEDLINE and PsycINFO were searched for studies reporting objectively-measured steps/day and percent predicted forced expiratory volume in 1 second (FEV1%) in patients with COPD. Meta-analyses were used to estimate steps/day across studies, while metaregression was used to estimate between-study variance based on clinical and demographic factors (year and location of study, activity monitor brand, number of days wearing the monitor, whether participants were about to enter pulmonary rehabilitation, 6-minute walk distance (6MWD), FEV1%, age, and sex).

Results:

38 studies including 2621 participants met inclusion criteria. The pooled mean estimate was 4579 steps/day (95% CI:4310 to 5208) for individuals with COPD. Only 6MWD, FEV1% and whether patients were about to undergo pulmonary rehabilitation explained a significant portion of the variance (P < 0.1) in univariate meta-regression. In a multivariate model including the above risk factors, only FEV1% was associated with steps/day after adjustment for other covariates.

Conclusions:

These results indicate that patients with COPD achieve extremely low levels of physical activity as assessed by steps/day, and that severity of airflow obstruction is associated with activity level.

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Cynthia C. Forbes, Chris M. Blanchard, W. Kerry Mummery and Kerry S. Courneya

Background:

Physical activity (PA) preferences may vary by cancer survivor group, but few studies have made direct comparisons. The purpose of this study was to compare the PA preferences of breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors in Nova Scotia (NS), Canada.

Methods:

Two thousand sixty-two breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors diagnosed between 2003 to 2011 were identified by the Nova Scotia Cancer Registry and mailed a questionnaire assessing PA preferences and standard demographic and medical variables.

Results:

Based on 741 respondents, numerous differences emerged among the cancer sites. Some of the larger differences (>20% difference) among breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors, respectively, were identified for engaging in PA with other cancer survivors (42% vs. 22% vs. 30%; P < .001) and with their friends (65% vs. 40% vs. 64%; P < .001); engaging in PA at a community fitness center (59% vs. 39% vs. 45%; P < .001); and preferring supervised (60% vs. 34% vs. 45%; P < .001) and group (53% vs. 24% vs. 41%; P < .001) sessions. Differences were also found within each survivor group based on demographic and medical variables including PA behavior, age, and perceived general health.

Conclusion:

Breast, prostate, and colorectal cancer survivors have some differences in PA preferences that may inform targeted PA program interventions.

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John C. Spence, Chris M. Blanchard, Marianne Clark, Ronald C. Plotnikoff, Kate E. Storey and Linda McCargar

Background:

The purposes of this study were to determine if a) gender moderated the relationship between self-efficacy and physical activity (PA) among youth in Alberta, Canada, and, alternatively b) if self-efficacy mediated the relationship between gender and PA.

Methods:

A novel web-based tool was used to survey a regionally diverse sample of 4779 students (boys = 2222, girls = 2557) from 117 schools in grades 7 to 10 (mean age = 13.64 yrs.). Among other variables, students were asked about their PA and self-efficacy for participating in PA.

Results:

Based upon a series of multilevel analyses, self-efficacy was found to be a significantly stronger correlate of PA for girls. But, boys had significantly higher self-efficacy compared with girls, which resulted in significantly more PA.

Conclusions:

Findings suggest self-efficacy is an important correlate of PA among adolescent girls but that boys are more physically active because they have more self-efficacy for PA.

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David Feeny, Rochelle Garner, Julie Bernier, Amanda Thompson, Bentson H. McFarland, Nathalie Huguet, Mark S. Kaplan, Nancy A. Ross and Chris M. Blanchard

Background:

The objective of this study was to assess the associations among body mass index (BMI), leisure time physical activity (LTPA) and health-related quality of life (HRQL) trajectories among adults.

Methods:

Self-reported data were drawn from the Canadian National Population Health Survey, with respondents being interviewed every 2 years between 1996–97 and 2006–07. Using growth curve modeling, HRQL trajectories for individuals aged 18 and over were associated with measures of BMI and LTPA. Growth models were constructed separately for males and females.

Results:

Findings suggested that, for males, BMI categories had little impact on baseline HRQL, and no impact on the rate of change in HRQL. Among women, higher BMI categories were associated with significantly lower baseline HRQL. However, BMI had no impact on the rate of change of HRQL. Conversely, for both men and women and regardless of BMI category, LTPA had significant impacts on baseline HRQL, as well as the rate of change in HRQL. Individuals who were inactive or sedentary had much steeper declines in HRQL as they aged, as compared with individuals who were active in their leisure time.

Conclusions:

The results underscore the importance of LTPA in shaping trajectories of HRQL.