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  • Author: Christian Lattermann x
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Jennifer S. Howard, Carl G. Mattacola, David R. Mullineaux, Robert A. English and Christian Lattermann

Context:

It is well established that autologous chondrocyte implantation (ACI) can require extended recovery postoperatively; however, little information exists to provide clinicians and patients with a timeline for anticipated function during the first year after ACI.

Objective:

To document the recovery of functional performance of activities of daily living after ACI.

Patients:

ACI patients (n = 48, 29 male; 35.1 ± 8.0 y).

Intervention:

All patients completed functional tests (weight-bearing squat, walk-across, sit-to-stand, step-up/over, and forward lunge) using the NeuroCom long force plate (Clackamas, OR) and completed patient-reported outcome measures (International Knee Documentation Committee Subjective Knee Evaluation Form, Lysholm, Western Ontario and McMaster Osteoarthritis Index [WOMAC], and 36-Item Short-Form Health Survey) preoperatively and 3, 6, and 12 mo postoperatively.

Main Outcome Measures:

A covariance pattern model was used to compare performance and self-reported outcome across time and provide a timeline for functional recovery after ACI.

Results:

Participants demonstrated significant improvement in walk-across stride length from baseline (42.0% ± 8.9% height) at 6 (46.8% ± 8.1%) and 12 mo (46.6% ± 7.6%). Weight bearing on the involved limb during squatting at 30°, 60°, and 90° was significantly less at 3 mo than presurgery. Step-up/over time was significantly slower at 3 mo (1.67 ± 0.69 s) than at baseline (1.49 ± 0.33 s), 6 mo (1.51 ± 0.36 s), and 12 mo (1.40 ± 0.26 s). Step-up/over lift-up index was increased from baseline (41.0% ± 11.3% body weight [BW]) at 3 (45.0% ± 11.7% BW), 6 (47.0% ± 11.3% BW), and 12 mo (47.3% ± 11.6% BW). Forward-lunge time was decreased at 3 mo (1.51 ± 0.44 s) compared with baseline (1.39 ± 0.43 s), 6 mo (1.32 ± 0.05 s), and 12 mo (1.27 ± 0.06). Similarly, forward-lunge impact force was decreased at 3 mo (22.2% ± 1.4% BW) compared with baseline (25.4% ± 1.5% BW). The WOMAC demonstrated significant improvements at 3 mo. All patient-reported outcomes were improved from baseline at 6 and 12 mo postsurgery.

Conclusions:

Patients' perceptions of improvements may outpace physical changes in function. Decreased function for at least the first 3 mo after ACI should be anticipated, and improvement in performance of tasks requiring weight-bearing knee flexion, such as squatting, going down stairs, or lunging, may not occur for a year or more after surgery.

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Samantha N. Boudreau, Maureen K. Dwyer, Carl G. Mattacola, Christian Lattermann, Tim L. Uhl and Jennifer Medina McKeon

Context:

Functional exercises are often used in strengthening programs after lower extremity injury. Activation levels of the stabilizing hip muscles have not been documented.

Objective:

To document the progression of hip-muscle activation levels during 3 lower extremity functional exercises.

Design:

Cross-sectional.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

44 healthy individuals, 22 women and 22 men.

Intervention:

Subjects, in 1 testing session, completed 3 trials each of the lunge (LUN), single-leg squat (SLSQ), and step-up-and-over (SUO) exercise.

Main Outcome Measures:

Root-mean-square muscle amplitude (% reference voluntary muscle contraction) was measured for 5 muscles during the 3 exercises: rectus femoris (RF), dominant and nondominant gluteus medius (GMed_D and GMed_ND), adductor longus (ADD), and gluteus maximus (GMX).

Results:

The RF, GMAX, and GMed_D were activated in a progression from least to greatest during the SUO, LUN, and SLSQ. The progression for the GMed_ND activation was from least to greatest during the SLSQ, SUO, and then LUN. Activation levels of the ADD showed no progression.

Conclusion:

Progressive activation levels were documented for muscles acting on the hip joint during 3 functional lower extremity exercises. The authors recommend using this exercise progression when targeting the hip muscles during lower extremity strengthening.

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Patrick O. McKeon, Jennifer M. Medina McKeon, Carl G. Mattacola and Christian Lattermann

Edited by Gary B. Wilkerson

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Kate N. Jochimsen, Margaret R. Pelton, Carl G. Mattacola, Laura J. Huston, Emily K. Reinke, Kurt P. Spindler, Christian Lattermann and Cale A. Jacobs

Background : Pain catastrophizing predicts poor outcomes following orthopedic procedures for patients with chronic conditions; however, limited research has focused on acute injuries. This study aimed to quantify the progression of Pain Catastrophizing Scale (PCS) scores from injury to 6-months post–anterior cruciate ligament reconstruction (ACLR) and determine if preoperative or 6-month PCS scores were related with self-reported pain or function 6 months post-ACLR. The authors hypothesized PCS scores would minimally fluctuate and would be related with worse outcomes 6-months post-ACLR. Methods : All 48 participants (27 male/21 female; aged 22.7 [4.6] y, body mass index 24 [3.3]) included in this secondary analysis of a randomized control trial sustained an ACL injury during sports activity. Participants completed the PCS and Pain Visual Analog Scale (VAS) at 5 time points: within 7 days of injury (INITIAL), day of surgery, 2 weeks postoperative (2W), 6 weeks postoperative (6W), and 6 months postoperative (6M). They completed the Knee Injury and Osteoarthritis Outcome Score (KOOS) at 6M. Wilcoxon signed-rank tests and Spearman rank-order correlations were used for analysis. Results: PCS scores were not fixed (INITIAL: 11.6 [10.8], day of surgery: 2.5 [3.7], 2W: 8.0 [7.8], 6W: 3.7 [6], 6M: 0.8 [2.3]). They fluctuated in response to injury and ACLR similar to Pain VAS scores. Preoperative PCS scores were not related with 6M outcomes; however, 6M PCS scores were significantly related with 6M Pain VAS and KOOS subscales. Conclusions: PCS scores fluctuated in response to injury and ACLR. Preoperative PCS scores were not related with 6M outcomes; however, 6M PCS scores correlated with pain and function at 6M. High pain catastrophizing appears to be a natural response immediately following acute ACL injury and ACLR, but may not be indicative of a poor postoperative result. PCS scores 6-months following ACLR may provide useful information regarding self-reported pain and function.