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Robert P. Mathner and Christina L.L. Martin

The study sought to examine the accuracy of sport management students’ perceptions of career expectations when compared with perceptions of sport management practitioners. A secondary purpose of the study was to analyze differences in such perceptions over a thirteen year period, comparing only graduate students’ and practitioners’ perceptions. The sample (N = 544) was inclusive of sport management graduate and undergraduate students and sport management industry practitioners. Two stages were used to gather data (1996 and 2010 data collection periods), thus slightly different collection procedures were used. Overall results indicate that significant differences existed between the students’ and practitioners’ perspectives regarding multiple areas: salary expectations, time until first sport management job, time before advancement opportunities, and others. Implications from this study will allow sport management advisors, faculty, and students to have a reference for current industry career trends. With this, students can be better informed and equipped to make career decisions.

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Ashley Gibson Bowers, Christina L.L. Martin, John Miller, Brent Wolfe and Nancy Magee Speed

The purpose of the study was to examine female athletes’ perceptions of their body image as a result of comparing themselves to others. Social comparison theory (Festinger, 1954) was used as the theoretical basis for understanding the effects of body image among intercollegiate female athletes. Using a qualitative analysis, the authors individually interviewed 20 female collegiate athletes attending a Division I university and thematically coded their responses. The findings suggest that coaches and teammates significantly contribute to body image pressures in female athletes, as participants were sensitive to the comments and perceptions of these groups. Finally, athletes perceived that the external population (those outside of coaches and teammates) evaluated athletic talent based on actual body image.

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Diane L. Gill, Betty C. Kelley, Jeffrey J. Martin and Christina M. Caruso

We compared two sport-specific measures of competitive orientation, the Sport Orientation Questionnaire (SOQ; Gill & Deeter, 1988) and the Competitive Orientation Inventory (COI; Vealey, 1986), and an alternative 4-item version of the COL Male and female athletes and nonathletes at two small colleges completed questionnaire packets. Competitive-orientation scores were similar to those reported in previous research. The 4-item measure correlated with the COI, and neither of those measures correlated with the SOQ. As in previous studies, males scored higher than females on SOQ competitiveness and win orientation, and athletes scored higher than nonathletes on all SOQ scores. Our results suggest that the SOQ and COI do not assess the same competitive-orientation constructs. The SOQ assesses sport-specific achievement orientation; the COI assesses the relative importance of performance versus outcome. Our 4-item measure is comparable and provides a reasonable substitute for the more complex COI.