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Cora L. Craig, Christine A. Cameron and Adrian Bauman

Background:

There are several well-known risk factor monitoring systems, but few examples of comprehensive surveillance systems designed specifically to inform physical activity (PA) policy. This paper examines the utility of Canada`s Physical Activity and Sport Monitoring System in guiding policy and practice.

Methods:

Indicators were determined in conjunction with government, nongovernmental associations and academics. Serial measures were collected from representative population (telephone interviews, n = 4000 to 11,000) and setting-based (postal surveys, n = 1425 to 4304) surveys.

Results:

Adult PA was higher in 2014 (47%) than 1998 (37%). The prevalence of knowledge about sufficient PA to meet national guidelines increased (31% to 57%). Most adults (66%) reported having many safe places to walk locally. Having policies to encourage walking and cycling when redeveloping communities increased by community size (5% to 37%). PA promotion was available in 10% to 15% of workplaces. Most parents (64%) provided transportation to support their child’s PA. The prevalence of policies mandating daily PE increased 2001 to 2011 (36% to 55%), as did having no policy to hire qualified PE teachers (25% to 34%).

Conclusions:

Canada’s surveillance system has provided information for guiding policy planning, resource allocation, setting and tracking national goals, assessing changes in PA determinants, and evaluating national campaigns, naturally occurring experiments, and innovative policies.

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Teresa L. Hart, Cora Lynn Craig, Joseph M. Griffiths, Christine Cameron, Ross E. Andersen, Adrian Bauman and Catrine Tudor-Locke

Background:

The Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health (JCUSH) was a one-time collaborative survey undertaken by Statistics Canada and the National Center for Health Statistics.

Methods:

This analysis provides country-, sex-, and age-specific comparative markers of adult obesity and sedentarism, defined as independent and collective groupings of self-reported leisure-time inactivity (<1.5 MET-hours/day), usual occupational sitting, and no/low active transportation (<1 hour/week). Logistic regression assessed the likelihood of sedentarism in U.S. vs. Canada, with and without adjusting for BMI-defined obesity categories: healthy weight (18.5 ≤ BMI <25 kg/m2; n = 3542), overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2; n = 2,651), and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2; n = 1470).

Results:

Compared with Canadians, U.S. adults are 24% more likely to be overweight/ obese, 59% more likely to be inactive in leisure-time, 19% more likely to report no/low active transportation, and 39% more likely to collectively report all sedentarism markers, adjusting for sex and age. Focusing on obese individuals in both countries, obese U.S. residents were 90% more likely to be inactive during leisure-time, 41% more likely to report no/low active transportation, and 73% more likely to report all sedentarism markers.

Conclusions:

This ecological analysis sheds light on differential risks of obesity and sedentarism in these neighboring countries.

Full access

Casey E. Gray, Joel D. Barnes, Jennifer Cowie Bonne, Christine Cameron, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Guy Faulkner, Ian Janssen, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Angela M. Kolen, Stephen R. Manske, Art Salmon, John C. Spence, Brian W. Timmons and Mark S. Tremblay

Background:

The Active Healthy Kids Canada (AHKC) Report Card consolidates and translates research and assesses how Canada is being responsible in providing physical activity opportunities for children (3- to 11-years-old) and youth (12- to 17-years-old). The primary aim of this article is to summarize the results of the 2014 AHKC 10th Anniversary Report Card.

Methods:

Ten physical activity indicators were graded using the AHKC Report Card development process, which includes a synthesis of the best available research, surveillance, policy and practice findings, and expert consensus.

Results:

Grades assigned were for: ‘Behaviors that Contribute to Overall Physical Activity Levels’ (Overall Physical Activity Levels, D-; Organized Sport Participation, C+; Active Play, INCOMPLETE; Active Transportation, D; Sedentary Behaviors, F), ‘Settings and Sources of Influence’ (Family and Peers, C; School, C+; and Community and the Built Environment, B+), and ‘Strategies and Investments’ (Government Strategies and Investments, C; and Non-Government Strategies and Investments, A-).

Conclusions:

Despite good availability of policies, programs, and infrastructure, the overall physical activity levels of Canadian children and youth remain low while sedentary behavior levels remain high. As with many nations, there is room for improvement in most physical activity behaviors and some sources of influence.

Open access

Joel D. Barnes, Christine Cameron, Valerie Carson, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Rachel C. Colley, Guy E.J. Faulkner, Ian Janssen, Roger Kramers, Travis J. Saunders, John C. Spence, Patricia Tucker, Leigh M. Vanderloo and Mark S. Tremblay

Open access

Joel D. Barnes, Christine Cameron, Valerie Carson, Jean-Philippe Chaput, Guy E.J. Faulkner, Katherine Janson, Ian Janssen, Roger Kramers, Allana G. LeBlanc, John C. Spence and Mark S. Tremblay

Background:

The ParticipACTION Report Card on Physical Activity for Children and Youth is the most comprehensive assessment of child and youth physical activity in Canada and provides an update or “state of the nation” that assesses how Canada is doing at promoting and facilitating physical activity opportunities for children and youth. The purpose of this paper is to summarize the results of the 2016 ParticipACTION Report Card.

Methods:

Twelve physical activity indicators were graded by a committee of experts using a process that was informed by the best available evidence. Sources included national surveys, peer-reviewed literature, and gray literature such as government and nongovernment reports and online content.

Results:

Grades were assigned to Daily Behaviors (Overall Physical Activity: D-; Organized Sport and Physical Activity Participation: B; Active Play: D+; Active Transportation: D; Physical Literacy: D+; Sleep: B; Sedentary Behaviors: F), Settings and Sources of Influence (Family and Peers: C+; School: B; Community and Environment: A-), and Strategies and Investments (Government: B-; Nongovernment: A-).

Conclusions:

Similar to previous years of the Report Card, Canada generally received good grades for indicators relating to investment, infrastructure, strategies, policies, and programming, and poor grades for behavioral indicators (eg, Overall Physical Activity, Sedentary Behaviors).