This article presents three studies representing the development stages of a theoretically driven measure employed to assess the frequency of use of the self-presentational strategy of self-handicapping in exercise contexts (Self-Handicapping Exercise Questionnaire: SHEQ). First a pilot study was conducted to examine the nature of the phenomenology of self-handicaps reported in exercise settings. Study 2 involved item creation, item trimming, and model confirmation. Study 3 concerned factorial validation, cross-validating the self-handicapping measure created in the second study. The outcome was a 20-item measure assessing self-handicapping claims in exercise. The results of both model-testing studies indicated three unique and stable factors addressing self-handicapping claims about making exercise a routine, training in an exercise facility, and healthy physical functioning. Self-handicapping responses were not moderated by gender, age, or exercise setting. Further use and development of the SHEQ is discussed.
Christopher A. Shields, David M. Paskevich and Lawrence R. Brawley
Kevin S. Spink, Christopher A. Shields, Karen Chad, Patrick Odnokon, Nazeem Muhajarine and Louise Humbert
The present study examines whether the correlates of physical activity relevant to sufficiently active youth and adolescents differed as a function of type (structured or unstructured) of physical activity. Participants completed measures of physical activity and activity correlates. The most frequently cited correlates were enjoyment, friends’ participation, and friends’ support. Significant differences were found across type of activity for enjoyment, perceived competence, parental support, coaches’ support, and friends’ participation. The results provide insight into the correlates of physical activity in this population and provide preliminary evidence that different correlates may be associated with different activities.
Koren L. Fisher, Bruce A. Reeder, Elizabeth L. Harrison, Brenda G. Bruner, Nigel L. Ashworth, Punam Pahwa, Nazmi Sari, M. Suzanne Sheppard, Christopher A. Shields and Karen E. Chad
Objective : To assess the maintenance of physical activity (PA) and health gains among participants in a class-based (CB) or home-based (HB) PA intervention over a 12-month study period. Methods : A total of 172 adults aged 50 years and older were randomly allocated to either a CB or an HB intervention, each involving an intensive 3-month phase with a 9-month follow-up period. Measures at baseline, 3, 6, and 12 months included self-reported PA and health, body mass index, waist circumference (WC), blood pressure, cardiovascular endurance (6-min walk test), physical function, and functional fitness (senior fitness test). Outcomes were analyzed using generalized estimating equations. Results : Maximum improvement was typically observed at 3 or 6 months followed by a modest diminution, with no differences between groups. For body mass index, waist circumference, 6-min walk test, and senior fitness test, there was progressive improvement through the study period. Greater improvement was seen in the CB group compared with the HB group on three items on the senior fitness test (lower body strength and endurance [29% vs. 21%, p < .01], lower body flexibility [2.8 cm vs. 0.4 cm, p < .05], and dynamic agility [14% vs. 7%, p < .05]). Conclusion : The interventions were largely comparable; thus, availability, preferences, and cost may better guide program choice.