The potential benefits of children’s engagement in sport for their psychological, social, and physical health are well established. Yet children may also experience psychological and social impairments due, in part, to a variety of detrimental coach behaviors. In the current study, we proposed and tested a conditional process model of children’s self-reported behavioral engagement and behavioral disaffection in sport based on self-determination theory. Results from a sample of 245 youth soccer players suggested that structure from coaches related positively to behavioral engagement and negatively to behavioral disaffection, and that these relations were mediated by athletes’ basic psychological need satisfaction. Importantly, and in line with our hypotheses, these indirect effects were moderated by autonomy support from coaches, such that the mediation was evident only among those who reported higher levels of autonomy support. These findings underscore the importance of coaches’ providing guidance, expectations, and feedback (i.e., structure) in a way that respects athletes’ volition (i.e., autonomy support).
Thomas Curran, Andrew P. Hill, and Christopher P. Niemiec
Stephen Samendinger, Christopher R. Hill, Teri J. Hepler, and Deborah L. Feltz
Background: The positive role of self-efficacy in directing a wide range of health-related interventions has been well documented, including those targeting an increase in physical activity. However, rarely do researchers control the influence of past performance and past self-efficacy perception ratings when exploring the interaction of self-efficacy and performance, allowing for a refined understanding of this relationship and the unique contribution of each factor. Methods: A residualized past performance, residualized self-efficacy hierarchical regression model was used to examine the effect of prior past performance and pre-exercise self-efficacy on performance with a health-related task (12 aerobic exercise cycling sessions). Results: The previous day’s residualized performance was a significant predictor of performance, as was same-day residualized self-efficacy (P < .001). However, residualized self-efficacy became a stronger predictor over time. Conclusions: While maintaining a consistent level of moderate–vigorous physical activity over 12 exercise sessions, participants increased their ratings of task self-efficacy, explaining an increasing portion of the variance in the self-efficacy–performance relationship days 9 to 12.
Victoria Catenacci, Christopher Barrett, Lorraine Odgen, Ray Browning, Christine Adele Schaefer, James Hill, and Holly Wyatt
The America on the Move (AOM) Family Intervention Program has been shown to prevent excess weight gain in overweight children. Providing intervention materials via the internet would have the potential to reach more families but may increase sedentary behavior. The purpose was to evaluate whether delivering the AOM Family Intervention via the internet versus printed workbook would have a similar impact on sedentary behaviors in children.
131 children (age 8–12) were randomized to receive the AOM Family Intervention via the internet or workbook for 12 weeks. Changes in objectively measured sedentary time and moderate-to vigorous physical activity (MVPA) as well as self-reported screen time were compared between groups.
There were no significant differences between groups in screen time, sedentary time, or MVPA at the end of the 12 week intervention. Families receiving the intervention via the internet were more likely to remain in the study (98% vs. 82%, P = .016).
Using the internet to deliver the lifestyle intervention did not increase sedentary behavior in children. Attrition rates were lower when the program was delivered by internet versus via printed materials. These results provide support for using the internet to deliver healthy lifestyle programs for children.
Christopher R. Hill, Deborah L. Feltz, Stephen Samendinger, and Karin A. Pfeiffer
Previous reviews have highlighted the importance of self-efficacy beliefs in maintaining adequate levels of childhood physical activity (PA), but variable findings with different age groups and measures of PA indicate the need to quantify the extant literature. The purpose of this meta-analysis was to estimate the relationship between adolescents’ barrier self-efficacy (BSE) and PA behavior using a random-effects model and to examine age and type of PA measurement as potential relationship moderators. A systematic online database review yielded 38 articles up to June 2018. A small to moderate correlation between BSE beliefs and PA was noted, although the variability was considerable. Age and measurement timing were not significant moderators, but the type of measurement was a significant relationship moderator. This meta-analysis emphasizes the importance of BSE as a psychosocial correlate to PA behavior in young people. There is a need for further BSE–PA research with attention to measurement technique and developmental differences.
Riley R. Stefan, Clayton L. Camic, Garrett F. Miles, Attila J. Kovacs, Andrew R. Jagim, and Christopher M. Hill
Purpose: To determine the relative contributions of handgrip and individual finger strength for the prediction of climbing performance in a bouldering competition. A secondary aim was to examine the influence of body size, bouldering experience, and training habits. Methods: Sixty-seven boulderers (mean [SD], age = 21.1 [4.0] y; body mass = 69.5 [9.8] kg) volunteered for this study. Data collection occurred immediately before an indoor bouldering competition and involved the assessment of handgrip and individual finger maximal force production using an electronic handheld dynamometer. The bouldering competition consisted of 70 routes graded V0 to V8, with higher point values awarded for completing more difficult routes. Stepwise multiple regression analysis was used to examine the relative contributions of handgrip and individual finger strengths, body mass, height, bouldering experience, and bouldering frequency to the prediction of performance scores in the competition. Results: Ring finger pinch strength, bouldering experience, and bouldering frequency significantly (P < .05) contributed to the model (R2 = .373), whereas body mass; height; full handgrip strength, as well as index, middle, and little finger pinch strengths did not. The β weights showed that ring finger pinch strength (β = .430) was the most significant contributor, followed by bouldering experience (β = .331) and bouldering frequency (β = .244). Conclusions: The current findings indicated that trainable factors contributed to the prediction of bouldering performance. These results suggest greater bouldering frequency and experience likely contribute to greater isolated individual finger strength, thereby optimizing preparation for the diverse handholds in competitive rock climbing.