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  • Author: Christopher P. Ingalls x
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Cory W. Baumann, Jeffrey C. Rupp, Christopher P. Ingalls and J. Andrew Doyle


The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between anaerobic characteristics and 5-km-race performance in trained female cross-country runners (N = 13).


The runners performed 50-m sprints and a 5-km time trial on an outdoor 400-m track and maximal anaerobic (MART) and aerobic running tests on a motorized treadmill. Anaerobic characteristics were determined by the mean velocity of the 50-m sprint (v 50m) and the peak velocity in the MART (v MART). The aerobic characteristics were obtained during the aerobic treadmill test and included maximal oxygen uptake (VO2max), running economy, and ventilatory threshold (VT).


Both the v MART (r = .69, P < .01) and VO2max (r = .80, P < .01) correlated with the mean velocity of the 5-km (v 5km). A multiple-linear-regression analysis revealed that the combination of VO2max, v MART, and VT explained 81% (R 2 = .81, P < .001) of the variation seen in the v 5km. The v MART accounted for 31% of the total shared variance, while the combination of VO2max and VT explained the remaining 50%.


These results suggest that among trained female runners who are relatively matched, anaerobic energy production can effectively discriminate the v 5km and explain a significant amount of the variation seen in 5-km-race performance.

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Michael S. Green, Benjamin T. Corona, J. Andrew Doyle and Christopher P. Ingalls

This study examined the effects of carbohydrate (CHO), carbohydrate-protein (CHO+PRO), or placebo (PLA) beverages on recovery from novel eccentric exercise. Female participants performed 30 min of downhill treadmill running (–12% grade, 8.0 mph), followed by consumption of a CHO, CHO+PRO, or PLA beverage immediately, 30, and 60 min after exercise. CHO and CHO+PRO groups (n = 6 per group) consumed 1.2 g · kg body weight–1 · hr–1 CHO, with the CHO+PRO group consuming an additional 0.3 g · kg body weight–1 · hr–1 PRO. The PLA group (n = 6) received an isovolumetric noncaloric beverage. Maximal isometric quadriceps strength (QUAD), lower extremity muscle soreness (SOR), and serum creatine kinase (CK) were assessed preinjury (PRE) and immediately and 1, 2, and 3 d postinjury to assess exercise-induced muscle injury and rate of recovery. There was no effect of treatment on recovery of QUAD (p = .21), SOR (p = .56), or CK (p = .59). In all groups, QUAD was reduced compared with PRE by 20.6% ± 1.5%, 17.2% ± 2.3%, and 11.3% ± 2.3% immediately, 1, and 2 d postinjury, respectively (p < .05). SOR peaked at 2 d postinjury (PRE vs. 2 d, 3.1 ± 1.0 vs. 54.0 ± 4.8 mm, p < .01), and serum CK peaked 1 d postinjury (PRE vs. 1 d, 138 ± 47 vs. 757 ± 144 U/L, p < .01). In conclusion, consuming a CHO+PRO or CHO beverage immediately after novel eccentric exercise failed to enhance recovery of exercise-induced muscle injury differently than what was observed with a PLA drink.

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Michael S. Green, J. Andrew Doyle, Christopher P. Ingalls, Dan Benardot, Jeffrey C. Rupp and Benjamin T. Corona

This study determined whether disrupted glucose and insulin responses to an oral glucose-tolerance test (OGTT) induced by eccentric exercise were attenuated after a repeated bout. Female participants (n = 10, age 24.7 ± 3.0 yr, body mass 64.9 ± 7.4 kg, height 1.67 ± 0.02 m, body fat 29% ± 2%) performed 2 bouts of downhill running (DTR 1 and DTR 2) separated by 14 d. OGTTs were administered at baseline and 48 hr after DTR 1 and DTR 2. Maximum voluntary isometric quadriceps torque (MVC), subjective soreness (100-mm visual analog scale), and serum creatine kinase (CK) were assessed pre-, post-, and 48 hr post-DTR 1 and DTR 2. Insulin and glucose area under the curve (38% ± 8% and 21% ± 5% increase, respectively) and peak insulin (44.1 ± 5.1 vs. 31.6 ± 4.0 μU/ml) and glucose (6.5 ± 0.4 vs. 5.5 ± 0.4 mmol/L) were elevated after DTR 1, with no increase above baseline 48 hr after DTR 2. MVC remained reduced by 9% ± 3% 48 hr after DTR 1, recovering back to baseline 48 hr after DTR 2. Soreness was elevated to a greater degree 48 hr after DTR 1 (48 ± 6 vs. 13 ± 3 mm), with a tendency for greater CK responses 48 hr after DTR 1 (813 ± 365 vs. 163 ± 43 U/L, p = .08). A novel bout of eccentric exercise confers protective effects, with subsequent bouts failing to elicit disruptions in glucose and insulin homeostasis.