Although scholars have explored sense of community in both online and face-to-face education, there has been little research of this topic in online sport management education. The community of inquiry (CoI) framework focuses on three aspects of overall student engagement in online education: social presence, cognitive presence, and teaching presence. It is through the interaction of these areas that a community of learning can be developed in online courses, and effective higher levels of learning can be implemented. The purpose of this review is to provide an overall perspective of the CoI framework as a means to enhance the student experience through discussion of social, cognitive, and teaching presence. In addition, implications for practical application in sport management programs and directions for future research of the CoI framework within sport management education will be provided, and related outcomes will be explored.
J. Michael Martinez and Christopher R. Barnhill
Christopher R. Barnhill, W. Andrew Czekanski and Adam G. Pfleegor
The aim of this study was to present a multifaceted sampling of sport management students in the United States prior to their first discipline-related course. Specifically, the demographics, backgrounds, and expectations of undergraduate students who enroll in sport management programs are explored. From demographic and performance standpoints, the results indicated that sport management students are not as diverse and have lower grade point averages than the general undergraduate population. The results also indicated that students have an unclear perspective of the potential career paths available to someone with a sport management degree. Finally, implications on student recruitment, retention, satisfaction, and career preparation are suggested. Specifically, the results urge faculty and instructors to discuss appropriate career expectations with students early in the sport management curriculum.