Purpose: Information and communication technologies can enable educators in the development of innovative and contextually relevant approaches for the provision of enhanced learning experiences. This study examined preservice physical education teachers’ perceptions of a flipped learning basketball course in a physical education teacher education program. Method: Semi-structured interviews were conducted with eight preservice physical education teachers (three females; M age = 23.5 years) who had completed the course. Interview data were coded using inductive and deductive thematic analysis. Results: Six main themes were identified reflecting benefits, challenges, and recommendations of flipped learning: (a) facilitate student-centered learning, (b) promote self-directed learning, (c) encourage real-world application, (d) insufficient avenues to assess understanding, (e) preclass preparation too time consuming, and (f) modification of materials and structure. Discussion/Conclusion: Flipped learning can potentially enhance preservice physical education teachers’ motivation for learning and increase active learning time in the sport-based courses in physical education teacher education. The identified challenges and recommendations are valuable for physical education teacher education educators to effectively prepare and execute flipped learning-based courses.
Koon Teck Koh, Chunxiao Li, and Swarup Mukherjee
Justin A. Haegele, Chunxiao Li, and Wesley J. Wilson
The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between interpersonal/intrapersonal mindfulness, contact anxiety, and attitudes toward students with visual impairments among certified adapted physical educators. Participants included 115 certified adapted physical educators who completed a 31-item online survey, composed of a 10-item demographic questionnaire, a 14-item mindfulness in teaching scale, a four-item intergroup anxiety scale, and a three-item attitude scale. Hierarchical multiple regression analyses revealed that intrapersonal mindfulness was a negative predictor of contact anxiety (β = −0.26, p = .007) and contact anxiety negatively predicted attitudes (β = −0.22, p = .02). A mediation analysis revealed that intrapersonal mindfulness had an indirect effect on attitudes through contact anxiety, b = 0.09, SE = 0.05, 95% confidence interval [0.006, 0.22]. Collectively, both intrapersonal and interpersonal mindfulness appear to be responsible for the formation of attitudes, but with different underlying processes involved.
Chunxiao Li, Ngai Kiu Wong, Raymond K.W. Sum, and Chung Wah Yu
Teachers’ attitudes toward students with autism spectrum disorder (ASD) are vital predictors of successful inclusive education. Guided by the basic psychological needs theory, this cross-sectional survey aimed to examine the relationships among mindfulness, basic psychological needs satisfaction (basic psychological needs theory-based construct), and attitudes toward including students with ASD among preservice physical education (PE) teachers. A multisection survey form was administered to 211 preservice PE teachers. Path analysis indicated that mindfulness and basic psychological needs satisfaction positively predicted attitudes toward the inclusion of students with ASD. In addition, mindfulness had an indirect effect on attitudes through basic psychological needs satisfaction. The findings provide a preliminary direction for the development of a mindfulness-based intervention program for enhancing preservice PE teachers’ attitudes toward the inclusion of students with ASD. The findings also suggest that the basic psychological needs theory is a useful framework for understanding the relationship between mindfulness and attitudes. Future longitudinal or intervention studies are needed to examine whether the findings can be replicated.
Chunxiao Li, Lijuan Wang, Martin E. Block, Raymond K.W. Sum, and Yandan Wu
Teachers’ self-efficacy is a critical predictor for successful inclusive physical education. However, little is known about preservice physical educators’ self-efficacy toward teaching students with autism spectrum disorders in China. A sound instrument is necessary to measure their self-efficacy level. This validation study examined the psychometric properties of the Chinese version of the Physical Educators’ Self-Efficacy Toward Including Students with Disabilities—Autism. A multisection survey form was administered to preservice physical educators in Mainland China (n = 205) and Hong Kong (n = 227). The results of confirmatory factor analysis confirmed the one-factor model of the scale in the total sample and each of the two samples. Invariance tests across the two samples supported configural and metric invariance but not scalar invariance. The scale scores showed good internal reliability and were correlated with theoretically relevant constructs (i.e., burnout and life satisfaction) in the total sample and subsamples. These findings generally support the utility of the scale for use among Chinese preservice physical educators.
Chunxiao Li, Justin A. Haegele, Ho Lun Au, and Kevin Wai Keung Kam
Purpose: This research was undertaken to examine predictors of physical education (PE) teachers’ attitudes toward teaching students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder in general PE. Method: In-service PE teachers (n = 151) in Hong Kong completed a multi-section survey measuring demographic variables, attitudes, self-esteem, and intrapersonal and interpersonal mindfulness. Survey data were mainly analyzed through multiple regression analyses. Results: The results showed that special education-related coursework and self-esteem were positive predictors of attitudes. However, they were no longer a significant predictor after mindfulness was entered into the regression model while both types of mindfulness positively predicted attitudes. Discussion/Conclusion: Self-esteem as well as intrapersonal and interpersonal mindfulness play an important role in predicting PE teachers’ attitudes toward teaching students with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder. Related training components may be included in the professional development programs for improving PE teachers’ attitudes.
Russell Martindale, Chunxiao Li, Georgios Andronikos, Marziyeh Jafari, and Rokhsareh Badami
The environment plays a significant role in the development of talent athletes. A big part of this is preparing athletes with the psychological skills to cope and thrive through the challenges of their sporting journey. Understanding which features of the talent development environment (TDE) best facilitate psychological skill use would be extremely useful for coaches to understand. As such, the main aim of this research was to investigate the relationships between TDE factors and psychological skills through a variable and person-centered approach (i.e., use of both regression and cluster analyses). A second aim was to examine the psychometric properties of the Persian Talent Development Environment Questionnaire-5 (TDEQ-5) providing an initial validation for its use in Persian speaking cultures. To this end, the TDEQ-5 and Psychological Skills Inventory for Sports—Youth version—Short Form were administered to 371 Iranian athletes. The results showed that higher quality TDEs predicted higher psychological skill use. Specifically, holistic quality preparation predicted all five psychological skills, while long-term development predicted anxiety control and alignment of expectations predicted self-confidence. The Persian TDEQ-5 was found to be a valid and reliable tool. Implications for coaches and those in charge of TDEs are discussed.