Background: This study examined the compliance with the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines among Hong Kong adolescents and its associations with body mass index (BMI). Methods: A total of 1039 adolescents (11–18 y) wore the activPAL™ for 24 hours for 7 consecutive days to assess physical activity (PA) and sleep duration. Screen time was measured using the Children’s Leisure Activities Study Survey (Chinese version). Linear mixed models were performed for analysis. Results: The analytic sample consisted of 692 adolescents (53% girls). Only 1.0% of the adolescents met all of the recommendations. The proportions of adolescents who met the recommendation for PA, screen time, and sleep were 9.1%, 31.2%, and 38.6%, respectively. Adolescent boys who did not meet the PA recommendation (β = 3.36; 95% CI, 1.04 to 5.68; P = .001) and those who did not meet the combination of PA and sleep recommendations (β = 2.10, 95% CI, 0.64 to 3.56; P = .01) had a higher body mass index than those who met the respective recommendations. Conclusions: Compliance with the 24-Hour Movement Guidelines was alarmingly low among Hong Kong adolescents. Meeting the PA recommendation or the combination of PA and sleep recommendations was associated with a healthier body weight in boys.
Yan Shi, Wendy Yajun Huang, Cindy Hui-Ping Sit and Stephen Heung-Sang Wong
Jane Jie Yu, Chia-Liang Tsai, Chien-Yu Pan, Ru Li and Cindy Hui-Ping Sit
Background: To examine the relationship between physical activity (PA) and inhibition in boys and girls with motor impairments compared with children with typical development. Methods: The participants were 58 (26 motor impairments and 32 typical development) children aged 7–12 years who met the inclusion criteria. PA was assessed using accelerometers for 7 consecutive days. The time spent in PA of different intensity levels (light, moderate, and vigorous) were analyzed for weekdays and weekends. Using a visuospatial attention paradigm, inhibition was evaluated by the difference in reaction time between invalid and valid cue conditions. Generalized linear mixed models were used to determine the associations of inhibition with PA and motor ability by sex. Results: Boys and children with typical development had shorter reaction times in inhibition than girls (P < .001) and children with motor impairments (P < .05), respectively. Motor ability (b = 189.98) and vigorous PA on weekdays (b = −43.18) were significant predictors of inhibition in girls only. Conclusions: The results indicate a positive relationship between vigorous PA (on weekdays) and inhibition in children (girls), moderated by sex and motor ability. Effective interventions that promote vigorous PA for children both in and out of school should be designed to foster their executive function development.
Yan Shi, Wendy Yajun Huang, Jane Jie Yu, Sinead Sheridan, Cindy Hui-Ping Sit and Stephen Heung-Sang Wong
Purpose: The aim of this study was to examine the factors that influence compliance and practical utility of a continuous wear protocols for activPAL™ among adolescents. Methods: Seven hundred and fifty-five (11–18 y; 50.6% girls) students wore the waterproof activPAL™ for 7 consecutive days. The effects of factors such as weather and practical strategies on compliance were assessed. Students were asked to note reasons for removing it in a log. After the 7-day period, students anonymously completed a practical utility questionnaire. Results: The final sample used to analyze compliance contained 588 available data points; 72.4% met the validity criteria, which were ≥4 valid days. Rainfall was inversely associated with total wear time, whereas using alcohol pads and cartoon stickers during the application were positively associated with total wear time. Sweating (25.2%) and skin irritation (39.0%) were the most reasons for 290 removal episodes by 235 students. The 131 questionnaires showed that 80.1% regarded the continuous wear period as too long and encountered problems, and 55% would rather not wear it again. Conclusion: Rainy weather affected girls’ compliance with the continuous wear protocol for activPAL™. Skin irritation and sweat-induced inadvertent drops caused removal. Future studies should investigate more user-friendly protocols.
Wendy Yajun Huang, Stephen Heung-Sang Wong, Martin Chi-Sang Wong, Cindy Hui-Ping Sit, Raymond Kim-Wai Sum and Gang He
Hong Kong’s 2016 Report Card on Physical Activity (PA) for Children and Youth is the first evidence-based synthesis of various indicators related to individual behaviors that contribute to overall PA levels, settings and sources of influence, and strategies and investments in Hong Kong.
Following a standardized protocol, currently best available data for Hong Kong youth were collated and evaluated by an expert consensus panel on 9 indicators (5 activity behaviors and 4 influences on these behaviors).
Less than half of the children and youth met the recommended PA level. As a result, a D grade was given for Overall PA levels. Organized Sport Participation and Active Transportation received grades of C- and B, respectively. Sedentary Behaviors and School scored a C grade. Community and the Built Environment scored a grade of B. Family Influence received as low a score as Overall PA (D). Active Play and Government were not graded due to incomplete data.
PA levels are low and sedentary behaviors are high for children and youth in Hong Kong. Promising policies exist in schools and features of community and the built environment are favorable. Increasing family support should be emphasized for future PA promotion.
Siu-Ming Choi, Raymond Kim-Wai Sum, Tristan Wallhead, Amy Sau-Ching Ha, Cindy Hui-Ping Sit, Deng-Yau Shy and Feng-Min Wei
Physical education teacher education is a time when preservice teachers can reinforce their physical literacy (PL). Professional coursework within the teacher preparation program should also develop their teaching efficacy. In this regard, the purpose of this study was to examine the predictive relationship between preservice physical education teachers’ perceived PL and teaching efficacy. The findings revealed that the PL dimension of self-expression and communication with others was the most significant predictor of teaching efficacy in developing content knowledge, applying scientific knowledge to teaching, teaching students with special needs, and using technology. Furthermore, preservice teachers’ knowledge and understanding of PL predicted their teaching efficacy in accommodating skill level differences within instruction. These predictive relationships suggest that preservice teachers’ PL influences their efficacy to enact effective teaching behaviors and should remain an ongoing priority of physical education teacher preparation programming suggested by the United Nations Educational, Scientific and Cultural Organization.