Rebecca A. Schlaff, Claudia Holzman, Lanay M. Mudd, Karin A. Pfeiffer and James M. Pivarnik
Little is known about how leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) influences gestational weight gain (GWG) among body mass index (BMI) categories. The purpose of this study was to examine the relationship between pregnancy LTPA and the proportion of normal, overweight, and obese women who meet GWG recommendations.
Participants included 449 subcohort women from the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) study. LTPA was collapsed into 3 categories [(None, < 7.5 kcal/kg/wk (low), ≥ 7.5 kcal/kg/wk (recommended)]. GWG was categorized according to IOM recommendations (low, recommended, or excess). Chi-square and logistic regression analyses were used to evaluate relationships among LTPA, BMI, and GWG.
Overweight women were more likely to have high GWG vs. normal weight women (OR = 2.3, 95% CI 1.3–4.0). Obese women were more likely to experience low GWG (OR = 7.3, 95% CI 3.6–15.1; vs. normal and overweight women) or excess GWG (OR = 3.5, 95% CI 1.9–6.5; vs. normal weight women). LTPA did not vary by prepregnancy BMI category (P = .55) and was not related to GWG in any prepregnancy BMI category (P = .78).
Regardless of prepregnancy BMI, LTPA did not affect a woman’s GWG according to IOM recommendations. Results may be due to LTPA not differing among BMI categories.
Lanay M. Mudd, Jim Pivarnik, Claudia B. Holzman, Nigel Paneth, Karin Pfeiffer and Hwan Chung
Leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) is recommended during pregnancy and has been associated with lower risk of delivering a large infant. We sought to characterize the effect of LTPA across the entire birth weight distribution.
Women enrolled in the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health (POUCH) Study (1998–2004) were followed-up in 2007. Follow-up efforts were extensive for a subcohort and minimal for the remainder (nonsubcohort). Thus, 596 subcohort and 418 nonsubcohort women who delivered at term participated. Offspring were categorized as small-, appropriate-, or large-for-gestational-age (SGA, AGA, and LGA, respectively) based on gender and gestational age-specific birth weight z-scores (BWz). At follow-up, women recalled pregnancy LTPA and were classified as inactive, insufficiently active or meeting LTPA recommendations. Linear, logistic, and quantile regression analyses were conducted separately by subcohort status.
Meeting LTPA recommendations decreased odds of LGA significantly among the nonsubcohort (aOR = 0.30, 95% CI: 0.14–0.64) and nonsignificantly among the subcohort (aOR = 0.68, 95% CI: 0.34–1.34). In quantile regression, meeting LTPA recommendations reduced BWz among the upper quantiles in the nonsubcohort.
LTPA during pregnancy lowered odds of LGA and reduced BWz among the upper quantiles, without shifting the entire distribution. LTPA during pregnancy may be useful for reducing risks of large fetal size.
Lanay M. Mudd, Jim M. Pivarnik, Karin A. Pfeiffer, Nigel Paneth, Hwan Chung and Claudia Holzman
We sought to evaluate the effects of maternal leisure-time physical activity (LTPA) during pregnancy and current child LTPA on child weight status.
Women with term pregnancies in the Pregnancy Outcomes and Community Health Study (1998–2004) were followed-up. A race-stratified subset of participants (cohort A) received extensive follow-up efforts leading to better response rates (592/926 = 64%) and diversity. The remainder (Cohort B) had a lower response rate (418/1629 = 26%). Women reported child height, weight and LTPA at 3 to 9 years (inactive vs. active), and recalled pregnancy LTPA (inactive vs. active). A 4-category maternal/child LTPA variable was created (reference: active pregnancy + active child). Children were classified as healthy weight, overweight, or obese using age- and sex-specific Body Mass Index percentiles. Logistic regression was used to assess the odds of child obesity (reference: healthy weight).
In unadjusted analyses, pregnancy inactivity increased odds for obesity when the child was active (1.6 [95% CI, 1.0−2.6] in Cohort A; 2.1 [95% CI, 1.1−4.0] in Cohort B), and more so when the child was inactive (2.4 [95% CI, 1.2−4.9] in Cohort A; 3.0 [95% CI, 1.0−8.8] in Cohort B). Adjustment for covariates attenuated results to statistical nonsignificance but the direction of relations remained.
Maternal inactivity during pregnancy may contribute to child obesity risk.