This paper provides sociological reflections on the professionalization of sport coaching and the attempts of sport coaches to attain such a status. It explicates existing sociological analyses of the professions, highlighting and critiquing the so-called “trait” approach which currently dominates discussions of the professionalization of sport coaching. It subsequently suggests that the “power approach” to professions, as epitomized by the work of Johnson, Larson and Abbott, provides a more realistic depiction of professionalization, alerting us to the conflictual and exclusionary aspects endemic in such a process. Finally the paper explores some twenty-first century trends towards the declining influence and social power of professional groups, and the specific characteristics and social standing of sport coaching which will serve to constrain sport coaches from achieving the goal of professional status. This analysis leads us to question whether professionalization should be viewed as an inherently “positive” development, and whether professionalization is a realistic goal for an occupational group such as sport coaching.
Dominic Malcolm, Claudia Pinheiro and Nuno Pimenta
Claudia Ridel Juzwiak, Olga Maria Silverio Amancio, Maria Sylvia Souza Vitalle, Vera Lúcia Szejnfeld and Marcelo Medeiros Pinheiro
In this prospective, cross-sectional study male adolescent tennis players (44) and nonathletic controls (32) were evaluated to determine the effects of physical activity, dietary nutrient intakes, sexual maturation, and body composition on bone-mineral density (BMD). Dietary nutrient intakes and physical activity expenditure were estimated by 4-d diaries. Total body composition, bone-mineral content (BMC), and BMD (L1–L4, femur, and nondominant forearm) were assessed by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry. Tennis players had significantly greater lean body mass (mean [SEM] 50.6 [1.6] kg vs. 45.1 [1.7] kg, p = .022), trochanter BMD (1.0 [0.02] g/cm2 vs. 0.9 [0.03] g/cm2, p = .032), and dominant forearm BMC (173.7 [7.4] g vs. 146.5 [9.3] g) but lower BMD in the nondominant forearm (0.7 [0.02] g/cm2 vs. 0.8 [0.03] g/cm2, p = .028). Daily average calcium intake was below the recommendation in both groups. No correlation was found between BMD and calcium intake and exercise. Lean body mass was the best predictor of BMD and BMC for both tennis players and controls (R 2 = .825, .628, and .693 for L1–L4, total femur, and nondominant forearm, respectively). Based on these results the authors conclude that lean body mass is the best predictor of BMD and BMC for both tennis players and others. Tennis exerts a site-specific effect, and training should focus on ways minimize this effect. Although calcium intake showed no effect on BMD, nutrition education for young athletes should focus on promoting a balanced diet, providing energy and nutrients in adequate amounts.