The purpose of this research was to describe temporal variations in Rio residents’ support for the 2016 Olympic Games and in the relationship between perceptions of legacies and support for the event. Drawing on social exchange theory, perceptions (expectations and evaluations) of tangible, intangible, and environmental legacies should affect support intentions. A longitudinal trend study was designed. Four multistage stratified random samples of Rio residents were surveyed in 2012 (n = 900), 2014 (n = 900), 2016 (n = 723), and 2018 (n = 550). Results showed that perceptions of legacies and support for Rio 2016 Olympic Games decreased progressively from 2012 to 2018. In the early stages of preparation (2012 and 2014), expectations of intangible and environmental legacies were predictors of support. In the year of the event and 2 years after the event, perceptions of tangible legacies were predictors of support. Longitudinal findings show that, to gain support, organizers promise unattainable legacies, which then lead to dwindling support, as they fail to deliver them. Findings suggest that organizers’ plans and actions of sport mega-events must change.
Claudio M. Rocha and Packianathan Chelladurai
The objective of the current research was to verify the extent to which Gouldner’s (1954) three patterns of bureaucracy were prevalent in intercollegiate athletic departments. Single and multiple-group confirmatory factor analysis (CFA) and structural equation modeling (SEM) of the data provided by 907 coaches from all three NCAA divisions (ndivI = 322; ndivII = 277; ndivIII = 308) showed that structural relationships among goals, processes, and patterns of bureaucracy were invariant among all three groups of coaches. Substantively, the factor of developmental goals through developmental processes (Trail & Chelladurai, 2000) predicted positively the presence of representative bureaucracy and punishment-centered bureaucracy and negatively the existence of mock bureaucracy. This means that the more athletic departments emphasize academic values, the less the coaches perceive a pattern of loose coupling between rules and actual technical activities. Implications of these results for theory and practice were discussed.