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Expert Teachers’ Instructional Communication in Golf

Collin A. Webster

Expert golf instructors self-monitor their instruction and communication more than any other aspects of their teaching (Schempp, McCullick, Busch, Webster, & Sannen-Mason, 2006). Despite its apparent importance, however, the communication of expert golf instructors has received little investigative attention. The purpose of this study was to examine the instructional communication behaviors of 4 of the most highly accomplished golf instructors in the United States. Ladies Professional Golf Association instructors who met criteria for expert teaching (Berliner, 1994) and 4 students participated in the study. Videotaping, stimulated recall, and semistructured interviews were used to collect data on the teachers’ immediacy, communication style, and content relevance behaviors. Data were analyzed using modified analytic induction (Bogdan & Biklen, 1992). Findings indicated that the experts adapted their communication behaviors in ways that fit students’ learning preferences, personal experiences, and lesson goals. The findings resonate with previous research on expert teaching in terms of experts’ instructional flexibility.

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Toward a General Theory of Classroom Teachers’ Movement Integration

Collin A. Webster

The use of regular classroom time during school to increase children’s and adolescents’ daily physical activity—a practice known as movement integration (MI)—has gained substantial traction in research internationally as an evidence-based strategy for enhancing students’ health and academic performance, yet it remains underutilized and largely subject to teachers’ discretion. Understanding and explaining teachers’ use of MI are, therefore, key areas of focus for researchers, teacher educators, and interventionists. Research on MI implementation is informed by multiple theoretical lenses, but the discipline lacks cohesion. The proposed unifying framework in this article coalesces three relevant strands of inquiry: (a) stages of influence on MI, (b) factors of influence on MI, and (c) conceptualizing MI. The framework reflects the burgeoning knowledge base related to MI implementation and is an attempt to advance the field toward a general theory that can more clearly and coherently guide research and professional practice.

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A Whole-of-School Approach to Physical Activity Promotion: The Case of One Secondary School in England

Emma Jaymes and Collin A. Webster

Purpose: Whole-of-school approaches to physical activity (PA) promotion are recommended internationally, but there remains little descriptive research detailing the implementation of such approaches, especially at the secondary level. The purpose of this case study, which drew upon a social-ecological perspective, was to examine a whole-of-school approach used by one secondary school in England. Method: Participants (N = 30) included three members of the school’s senior leadership team, eight teachers, 15 students, and four parents. Data were collected during 5 months using open-ended questionnaires that all participants completed, 14 staff interviews with staff, three focus groups with students, six observations, and attendance records from various PA opportunities. Results: Thematic analysis identified five key PA opportunities and uncovered four themes in relation to these opportunities: Student Autonomy, Support from Leadership, New School, and Physical Education Time. Discussion/Conclusion: This study highlights the importance of targeting multiple levels of influence when implementing whole-of-school PA programming.

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Preservice Physical Education Teachers’ Service Learning Experiences Related to Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programming

Collin A. Webster, Danielle Nesbitt, Heesu Lee, and Cate Egan

Purpose:

The purpose of this study was to examine preservice physical education teachers’ (PPET) service learning experiences planning and implementing course assignments aligned with comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) recommendations.

Methods:

Based on service learning principles, PPETs (N = 18) enrolled in a physical education methods class planned, implemented, and reflected on physical activity promotion events before, during, and after school for youth, staff, and parents. Data sources included focus group interviews, written reflections, field notes, and artifacts. Constant comparison techniques and triangulation guided data analysis and interpretation to identify overarching themes describing the PPETs’ successes, challenges, and lessons learned.

Results:

Four themes were identified: (a) outcomes with youth, parents, and staff, (b) communication, (c) planning and preparation, and (d) priorities and possibilities.

Discussion/Conclusion:

This study provides insight into the feasibility and outcomes of CSPAP-related service learning for PPETs, and uncovers promising aspects as well as potential issues with CSPAP implementation.

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Implementation and Effectiveness of a CSPAP-Informed, Online Secondary Methods Course With Virtual Field Experiences During the COVID-19 Pandemic

Collin A. Webster, Jongho Moon, Hayes Bennett, and Stephen Griffin

This study examined the implementation and effectiveness of a comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP)-informed, 15-week physical education secondary methods course, adapted from its previous in-person format to be completely online for fall 2020 during the COVID-19 pandemic. The participants were 15 preservice physical education teachers (PPETs) and three course instructors. Each PPET taught six virtual physical education lessons to middle and high school students learning at home. Multiple data sources including focus groups, individual interviews, and course artifacts were analyzed to address research questions centered on the fidelity of course delivery, adaptations made to the course during implementation, and the PPETs’ approach to lesson planning and teaching. The findings showed a high level of implementation fidelity, and few adaptations were made to the course. Three themes were identified with respect to the PPETs’ pedagogical approach: personalization, inquiry-based instruction, and resilience. This study provides a case example of trying to prepare PPETs for professional roles in the COVID era.

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Operationally Conceptualizing Physical Literacy: Results of a Delphi Study

Chelsee A. Shortt, Collin A. Webster, Richard J. Keegan, Cate A. Egan, and Ali S. Brian

Purpose: To operationally conceptualize physical literacy (PL) for application in the United States, using a modified Delphi approach, with PL academics. Methods: A sequential, mixed methods, modified Delphi research design was employed, consisting of three phases: (a) literature analysis, (b) Delphi Survey I (22 participants), and (c) Delphi Survey II (18 participants). Data were analyzed using qualitative coding and descriptive frequency statistics. Results: PL academics’ conceptions of PL suggested a multidimensional, noncontextual, personal, holistic learning process. Qualitative analysis generated two themes: (a) “PL is” and (b) “PL is not.” Quantitative results aligned with the qualitative findings. PL concepts that achieved unanimous agreement were (a) application of knowledge to physical activity (PA), (b) value of PA, (c) autonomous participation in PA, (d) enjoyment of PA, and (e) ability to participate in PA independently. Discussion/Conclusion: PL was operationalized as an autonomous application of movement, constructed by the individual’s conception of movement and response to adversity.

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The Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program Model: A Proposed Illustrative Supplement to Help Move the Needle on Youth Physical Activity

Collin A. Webster, Judith E. Rink, Russell L. Carson, Jongho Moon, and Karen Lux Gaudreault

Birthed over a decade ago and built on a solid foundation of conceptual and empirical work in public health, the comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) model set the stage for a new and exciting chapter of physical activity promotion through schools. On the academic front, there has been much enthusiasm around the potential of CSPAPs to positively affect youth physical activity behaviors and trajectories. However, program uptake in schools has yet to take hold. This article examines the CSPAP model and proposes an illustrative supplement to enhance communication about its application. The authors begin by charting the model’s challenging contextual landscape and then highlight the model’s early successes in spite of such challenges. Subsequently, they turn their attention to limitations in the way the model is presented, which appear to undermine CSPAP advocacy, and focus on improving the messaging about CSPAPs as an immediate step toward increased implementation.

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Systematic Review and Meta-Analysis of Multi-Component Interventions Through Schools to Increase Physical Activity

Laura B. Russ, Collin A. Webster, Michael W. Beets, and David S. Phillips

Background:

A “whole-of-school” approach is nationally endorsed to increase youth physical activity (PA). Aligned with this approach, comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAP) are recommended. Distinct components of a CSPAP include physical education (PE), PA during the school day (PADS), PA before/after school (PABAS), staff wellness (SW), and family/community engagement (FCE). The effectiveness of interventions incorporating multiple CSPAP components is unclear. A systematic review and meta-analysis were conducted examining the effectiveness of multicomponent interventions on youth total daily PA.

Methods:

Electronic databases were searched for published studies that (1) occurred in the US; (2) targeted K–12 (5–18 years old); (3) were interventions; (4) reflected ≥ 2 CSPAP components, with at least 1 targeting school-based PA during school hours; and (5) reported outcomes as daily PA improvements. Standardized mean effects (Hedge’s g) from pooled random effects inverse-variance models were estimated.

Results:

Across 14 studies, 12 included PE, 5 PADS, 1 PABAS, 2 SW, and 14 FCE. No studies included all 5 CSPAP components. Overall, intervention impact was small (0.11, 95% CI 0.03–0.19).

Conclusions:

As designed, there is limited evidence of the effectiveness of multicomponent interventions to increase youth total daily PA. Increased alignment with CSPAP recommendations may improve intervention effectiveness.

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Exploring the Role of Physical Education Teachers’ Domain-Specific Innovativeness, Educational Background, and Perceived School Support in CSPAP Adoption

Collin A. Webster, Diana Mindrila, Chanta Moore, Gregory Stewart, Karie Orendorff, and Sally Taunton

Purpose: A comprehensive school physical activity program (CSPAP) is designed to help school-aged youth meet physical activity guidelines as well as develop the knowledge, skills, and dispositions that foster meaningful lifelong physical activity participation. In this study, we employed a “diffusion of innovations theory” perspective to examine the adoption of CSPAPs in relation to physical education teachers’ domain-specific innovativeness, educational background, demographics, and perceived school support. Methods: Physical education teachers (N = 407) responded to an electronic survey with validated measures for each of the above-mentioned variables. Results: Latent profile analysis classified teachers into three domain-specific innovativeness levels (high, average, and low). CSPAP-related professional training, knowledge, and perceived school support were found to be significant factors in domain-specific innovativeness and CSPAP adoption. Discussion/Conclusion: This study provides novel evidence to inform professional development initiatives so that they can be tailored to physical education teachers who may be less likely to adopt a CSPAP.

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Measuring and Comparing Physical Education Teachers’ Perceived Attributes of CSPAPs: An Innovation Adoption Perspective

Collin A. Webster, Diana Mîndrilă, Chanta Moore, Gregory Stewart, Karie Orendorff, and Sally Taunton

Purpose: Drawing from the diffusion of innovations theory, this study aimed to develop a survey to measure physical education teachers’ perceived attributes of comprehensive school physical activity programs (CSPAPs) and examine the differences between adopters’ and potential adopters’ perceived attributes. Method: The authors created an electronic survey and e-mailed it to 2,955 physical education teachers identified from a random sample of all public schools in the United States. The participants’ (N = 407) responses were analyzed using the exploratory structural equation modeling framework. Results: The exploratory structural equation modeling yielded five factors: (a) compatibility, (b) relative advantage, (c) observability, (d) simplicity, and (e) trialability (χ2/df = 3.2; root mean square error of approximation = .074; comparative-fit index = .983; Tucker–Lewis index = .971; weighted root mean residual = .668). Compared with potential adopters, teachers who had already adopted a CSPAP perceived CSPAPs as simpler to implement but less trialable. Discussion/Conclusion: This study advances the measurement for CSPAP implementation and offers insight into program attributes that merit a targeted focus in efforts to increase CSPAP adoption.