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  • Author: Cong Chen x
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Heather K. Vincent, Laura A. Zdziarski, Kyle Fallgatter, Giorgio Negron, Cong Chen, Trevor Leavitt, MaryBeth Horodyski, Joseph G. Wasser and Kevin R. Vincent

Purpose: To determine whether differential kinematics, kinetics, rates of energy use, and cardiopulmonary responses occur during running with water bottles and bottle belt holders compared with running only. Methods: Trained runners (N = 42; age 27.2 [6.4] y) ran on an instrumented treadmill for 4 conditions in a randomized order: control run (CON), handheld full water bottle (FULL; 16.9 fluid oz; 454 g), handheld half-full water bottle (HALF; 8.4 fluid oz; 227 g), and waist-worn bottle belt holder (BELT; hydration belt; 676 g). Gas exchange was measured using a portable gas analyzer. Kinetic and kinematic responses were determined by standard 3-dimensional videographic techniques. Interactions of limb side (right and left) by study condition (CON, FULL, HALF, and BELT) were tested for rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure and kinematic and kinetic parameters. Results: No significant limb-side × condition interactions existed for rates of oxygen use or energy expenditure. A significant interaction occurred with sagittal elbow flexion (P < .001). Transverse pelvic-rotation excursions differed on average 3.8° across conditions. The minimum sagittal hip-flexion moment was higher in the right leg in the HALF and BELT conditions compared with CON (P < .001). Conclusions: Carrying water by hand or on the waist does not significantly change the kinematics of running motion, rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure, or cardiopulmonary measures over short durations. Runners likely make adjustments to joint moments and powers that preserve balance and protect the lower-extremity joints while maintaining rates of oxygen use and energy expenditure.

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Jie Liang, Shuang-Shuang Tian, Nan Qiao, Cong Wang, Jian-Jun Huang, Chen-Ming Sun, Hai-Xia Zhang, Yan Cui, Hui Wang, Xiao-Meng Liu, Shu-Hong Xu, Hongwei Guan and Tong Wang


This study aimed to investigate the relationship between metabolic syndrome (MetS) and physical activity (PA) in different domains among male coal miners of Shanxi Province in China.


The study was conducted from July 2013 to December 2013. A two-stage stratified cluster sampling method was used. Data regarding the general information of participants were collected by well-trained interviewers. MetS was defined according to IDF criteria. Self-reported PA was obtained with the IPAQ and categorized into three tertiles of intensity levels across occupation, transportation, household, and leisure-time domains. Univariate and multiple logistic regression analysis were applied to compute the odds ratios and their 95% confidence interval (CI).


A total of 3076 males aged 18–65 years old were recruited in this cross-sectional study. The prevalence of MetS was 40.5% in the study subjects. The percentages of vigorous-intensity PA in MetS and non-MetS groups were 70.07% and 62.92%, respectively. Participants spent most of their time on occupation (2034 MET-min/w) and transportation (693MET-min/w) domains. Higher-intensity levels in occupation domains were significantly associated with lower risk of MetS (OR: 0.759, 95% CI: 0.633–0.911; OR: 0.627, 95% CI: 0.516–0.762).


Across four types of workers, the relationships between PA domains and MetS were different. For underground and underground auxiliary workers, the negative relationship was found between occupation PA and MetS. For office workers, the negative relationship was found between household PA and MetS. For ground workers, only leisure-time PA had positively related to MetS.