The voices of South African feminists and womanists are relatively absent from public debates concerning women’s participation and empowerment in sport. This paper represents a contribution to the gender discourse, drawing on feminist paradigms and reflecting on the marginality of South African women in society and in sport. The findings of two separate studies, undertaken in 1977 and 1999 respectively, are reported. The research focused on the assessment of the impact of the Sports Leaders Programme (as part of the South Africa-United Kingdom Sports Initiative) and the junior component of the sports development programme initiated by the Australian Sports Commission (Super Kidz). Data were collected by means of structured interviews from different stakeholders at macro- (national), meso- (community/institutional) and micro- (individual) levels. A representative sample for the Sports Leaders Programme included 17 co-ordinators and facilitators (at national and provincial levels) and nine sports leaders at community level. To obtain qualitative data concerning the Super Kidz Programme, two provinces were targeted for data collection. A quota sample of seven schools was selected as the experimental group (having introduced the programme) and five schools in close proximity acted as controls. One hundred and forty-four role-players at different levels of participation were interviewed. To obtain some triangulation of data, 110 role-players also participated in focus groups. The data reflecting the position and involvement of women in these programmes were analysed. Against the reality of the majority of women living in conditions of chronic poverty, exposed to patriarchy, being ideologically stereotyped and structurally marginalized, they were, to a large extent absent, and their efforts unrecognised in the institutionalised domain of sport. It was concluded that sport is a severely gendered domain in which male hegemony is acted out and perpetuated whereas women in impoverished communities view access to sport as peripheral in their everyday struggle for material survival. National agencies should therefore not rely on female volunteers to facilitate sports development in impoverished communities but to strategize differently while also redressing ideological and structural gender inequalities in the wider social context.
Cora Burnett and Wim Hollander
The United Kingdom-South Africa Sports Initiative was launched in 1994 to contribute to a sustainable and equitable sports development system in South Africa. The initiative was implemented in two phases. Phase I entailed planning and developing a national sports administration curriculum. In Phase II, planning was finalized and resources were provided for the development of a sports delivery system, and the program was monitored to identify (a) problems, constraints, and challenges; (b) solutions; and (c) an implementation plan. Coordinators (n = 5), lead facilitators (n = 2), facilitators (n = 10), and sports leaders (n = 9) were interviewed, and statistics were compiled on their race and gender. The conclusion of Phase II entailed monitoring different aspects of the sports leaders' course. The main trends identified through that process include the context, aims and objectives, style of presentation, and content of courses at different levels. Perceptions about ownership, management, and the possible impact of the initiative are discussed.