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  • Author: Cora L. Craig x
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Caitlin Mason, Peter T. Katzmarzyk, Cora L. Craig and Lise Gauvin

Background:

This study investigates the degree to which the relationship between self-rated health and mortality is consistent across income groups in Canada and whether it can be explained by differentials in physical activity.

Methods:

A sample of 17,852 adults in the 1981 Canada Fitness Survey was followed for 13 y for mortality.

Results:

After adjusting for several confounders, there was a dose-response relationship between self-rated health and all-cause, CVD, and cancer mortality. This relationship persisted across levels of income. Physical activity was inversely related to mortality; however, the risk of mortality associated with low self-rated health did not differ significantly between activity groups.

Conclusions:

Physical activity does not appear to be a significant mediating or moderating factor in the relationship between self-rated health and mortality.

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Cora L. Craig, Christine A. Cameron and Adrian Bauman

Background:

There are several well-known risk factor monitoring systems, but few examples of comprehensive surveillance systems designed specifically to inform physical activity (PA) policy. This paper examines the utility of Canada`s Physical Activity and Sport Monitoring System in guiding policy and practice.

Methods:

Indicators were determined in conjunction with government, nongovernmental associations and academics. Serial measures were collected from representative population (telephone interviews, n = 4000 to 11,000) and setting-based (postal surveys, n = 1425 to 4304) surveys.

Results:

Adult PA was higher in 2014 (47%) than 1998 (37%). The prevalence of knowledge about sufficient PA to meet national guidelines increased (31% to 57%). Most adults (66%) reported having many safe places to walk locally. Having policies to encourage walking and cycling when redeveloping communities increased by community size (5% to 37%). PA promotion was available in 10% to 15% of workplaces. Most parents (64%) provided transportation to support their child’s PA. The prevalence of policies mandating daily PE increased 2001 to 2011 (36% to 55%), as did having no policy to hire qualified PE teachers (25% to 34%).

Conclusions:

Canada’s surveillance system has provided information for guiding policy planning, resource allocation, setting and tracking national goals, assessing changes in PA determinants, and evaluating national campaigns, naturally occurring experiments, and innovative policies.

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Tracie A. Barnett, Lise Gauvin, Cora L. Craig and Peter T. Katzmarzyk

Background:

We investigated the population trajectory of leisure time physical activity (LTPA) in adults age 18 to 60 y (n = 881), who were recruited in 1981 for the Canada Fitness Survey and followed-up through the Campbell’s Survey on Well-Being (1988) and the Physical Activity Longitudinal Study (2002/04).

Methods:

Data on involvement in LTPA were collected by questionnaire and used to estimate average daily energy expenditure (EE) (kcal · kg-1 · d-1) during leisure time. Growth trajectory modeling was used to describe the overall population trajectory of LTPA and the extent to which average trajectories varied between sub-groups defined by age, sex, and education.

Results:

The population trajectory of LTPA over time was modified by baseline age, but not by sex or by level of education. Disparities in LTPA related to sex and education persisted over two decades.

Conclusion:

This longitudinal investigation improves our understanding of the processes underlying patterns of LTPA in adults.

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Leonard M. Waekel, W. Kerry Mummery, Thomas Stephens and Cora L. Craig

The purpose of the study was to investigate the utility of various social-psychological variables for predicting intentions to engage in physical activity within a national population. More specifically, attitude, perceived behavioral control, and perceived social support measures were utilized to provide modified operationalizations of the theories of planned behavior and reasoned action in order to assess their relative utility for predicting physical activity intentions. Data from the Campbell's Survey of the Weil-Being of Canadians enabled the assessment of the predictive efficacy of the two models in the overall population, as well as in various population subgroups. The theory of planned behavior was found to account for a substantially greater percentage of the behavior intention variance (31%) than did the theory of reasoned action (15%). Further, the study provides some support for the utility of the theory of planned behavior for understanding the activity intentions of different population groups.

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Adrian Bauman, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Fiona Bull, Cora L. Craig, Maria Hagströmer, James F. Sallis, Michael Pratt and Michael Sjöström

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Teresa L. Hart, Cora Lynn Craig, Joseph M. Griffiths, Christine Cameron, Ross E. Andersen, Adrian Bauman and Catrine Tudor-Locke

Background:

The Joint Canada/United States Survey of Health (JCUSH) was a one-time collaborative survey undertaken by Statistics Canada and the National Center for Health Statistics.

Methods:

This analysis provides country-, sex-, and age-specific comparative markers of adult obesity and sedentarism, defined as independent and collective groupings of self-reported leisure-time inactivity (<1.5 MET-hours/day), usual occupational sitting, and no/low active transportation (<1 hour/week). Logistic regression assessed the likelihood of sedentarism in U.S. vs. Canada, with and without adjusting for BMI-defined obesity categories: healthy weight (18.5 ≤ BMI <25 kg/m2; n = 3542), overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30 kg/m2; n = 2,651), and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 kg/m2; n = 1470).

Results:

Compared with Canadians, U.S. adults are 24% more likely to be overweight/ obese, 59% more likely to be inactive in leisure-time, 19% more likely to report no/low active transportation, and 39% more likely to collectively report all sedentarism markers, adjusting for sex and age. Focusing on obese individuals in both countries, obese U.S. residents were 90% more likely to be inactive during leisure-time, 41% more likely to report no/low active transportation, and 73% more likely to report all sedentarism markers.

Conclusions:

This ecological analysis sheds light on differential risks of obesity and sedentarism in these neighboring countries.