The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of two different resistance training (RT) systems on oxidative stress biomarkers in older women. Fifty-nine older women (67.9 ± 5.0 years) were randomly assigned to one of three groups. Two training groups performed an 8 week RT program either in traditional (TD, n = 20) or a pyramid (PR, n = 20) system 3 times per week, or a control group (CG, n = 19). The TD program consisted of 3 sets of 8–12 RM with constant load for the 3 sets, whereas the PR training consisted of 3 sets of 12/10/8 RM with incremental loads for each set. As compared with the CG, both TD and PR achieved upregulation of the antioxidant system as evidenced by higher (p < .05) values of total radical-trapping antioxidant parameter plasma concentration after intervention (TD= 930.4 ± 160.0 µmolTrolox, PR= 977.8 ± 145.2 µmolTrolox, CG= 794.4 ± 130.2 µmolTrolox). For the protein oxidation adducts, TD and PR presented lower (p < .05) scores compared with CG (TD= 91.2 ± 25.0 µmol/L, PR= 93.0 ± 30.3 µmol/L, CG= 111.0 ± 20.4 µmol/L). However, there were no differences (p < .05) between trained groups in the antioxidant capacity markers and in the protein oxidation adducts markers. The results suggest that 8 weeks of progressive RT promotes an improvement in markers of oxidative stress in older women independent of the load-management RT system.
Alex S. Ribeiro, Rafael Deminice, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Camila S. Padilha, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Luís B. Sardinha and Edilson S. Cyrino
João Pedro Nunes, Alex S. Ribeiro, Analiza M. Silva, Brad J. Schoenfeld, Leandro dos Santos, Paolo M. Cunha, Matheus A. Nascimento, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Melissa Antunes, Letícia T. Cyrino and Edilson S. Cyrino
The aim of this study was to analyze the association between muscle quality index (MQI) and phase angle (PhA) after a program of progressive resistance training (RT) in older women. Sixty-six older women with previous RT experience (68.8 ± 4.6 years, 156.6 ± 5.3 cm, 66.0 ± 13.0 kg, and 26.7 ± 4.6 kg/m2) underwent 12 weeks of RT (3 ×/week, eight exercises, and 10–15 repetition maximum). Anthropometry, muscular strength (one-repetition maximum tests), and body composition (dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry and spectral bioimpedance) were measured pre- and posttraining. There were observed significant increases for PhA, MQI, muscular strength, muscle mass, and reactance, whereas no significant changes in body fat and resistance were found. A significant correlation was observed between the RT-induced relative changes in PhA and MQI (r = .620). We conclude that improvements in MQI induced by RT are associated with increases in PhA. Therefore, PhA may be a valid tool to track changes in MQI after 12 weeks of RT in older women.
Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Paulo Sugihara Junior, Edilaine F. Cavalcante, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Analiza M. Silva, Luís B. Sardinha and Edilson S. Cyrino
The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of protein intake beyond habitual intakes associated with resistance training on metabolic syndrome (MetS)-related parameters, isokinetic strength, and body composition in health older women. A total of 30 older women (68.8 ± 4.3 years) participated in this investigation and were assigned to receive 35 g of whey protein or placebo combined with resistance training, over 12-weeks, three times per week. Blood samples, blood pressure, dietary intake, strength, and body composition were assessed before and after the intervention period. Two-way analysis of variance for repeated measures was applied for comparisons. Both groups improved the skeletal muscle mass, muscular strength, waist circumference, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein, glucose, resistance, reactance, and MetS Z-score risk. However, the improvements in skeletal muscle mass, waist circumference, and MetS Z-score risk were significantly greater in protein group when compared with control group. Moreover, protein group significantly decreased %body fat when compared with control group. Higher protein intake combined with resistance training promoted greater improvements in skeletal muscle mass, %body fat, waist circumference, and MetS Z-score risk in older women.
Paulo Sugihara Junior, Alex S. Ribeiro, Hellen C.G. Nabuco, Rodrigo R. Fernandes, Crisieli M. Tomeleri, Paolo M. Cunha, Danielle Venturini, Décio S. Barbosa, Brad J. Schoenfeld and Edilson S. Cyrino
The purpose of this study was to investigate the effect of whey protein (WP) supplementation on muscular strength, hypertrophy, and muscular quality in older women preconditioned to resistance training (RT). In a randomized, double-blind, and placebo (PLA)-controlled design, 31 older women (67.4 ± 4.0 years, 62.0 ± 6.9 kg, 155.9 ± 5.7 cm, and 25.5 ± 2.4 kg/m2) received either 35 g of WP (n = 15) or 35 g of PLA (n = 16) over a 12-week study period while performing an RT program three times a week. Dietary intake, one-repetition maximum test, and skeletal muscle mass by dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry were assessed before and after the intervention period. Both groups showed significant (p < .05) improvements in skeletal muscle mass and total strength, and the WP group realized greater increases (p < .05) in these measures compared with PLA (skeletal muscle mass: WP = +4.8% vs. PLA = +2.3%; strength: WP = +8.7% vs. PLA = +4.9%). Muscular quality increased (p < .05) in both groups (WP = +2.9% vs. PLA = +1.5%) without statistical differences (p > .05) noted between conditions. We conclude that WP supplementation in combination with RT induces higher increases in both strength and hypertrophy in older women preconditioned to RT.