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Cynthia Carlisle and D. Allen Phillips

Teacher enthusiasm has long been considered an important part of the teaching process. However, empirical verification of enthusiasm as an indicator of teaching effectiveness is somewhat sparse. One problem is with measuring that complex variable, while another problem has been determining what to correlate it with to allow it to surface as such an indicator. Twenty-four preservice teachers participated in this study to determine the differences in teacher and student behavior between the levels of enthusiasm in trained and untrained teachers. The experimental group was given 6 hours of enthusiasm training whereas the control group received no such training. Both groups taught a 30-minute Experimental Teaching Unit (ETU) to a total of 120 middle-school students. The observation instrument in this study was the Physical Education Teaching Assessment Instrument (PETAI), while the Collins Enthusiasm Rating Scale was used to measure the teachers’ enthusiasm. The trained teachers received much higher ratings in enthusiasm during their ETU lessons and were significantly better on three of the PETAI items. The students of the trained teachers also had higher skill achievement gains over their counterparts under the untrained teachers.

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D. Allen Phillips and Cynthia Carlisle

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D. Allen Phillips and Cynthia Carlisle

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Cynthia Carlisle and D. Allen Phillips

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Margaret Carlisle Duncan and Cynthia A. Hasbrook

Televised texts of women’s sports are examined using the hermeneutical method. This study begins with the observation that women’s participation in team sports and certain “male-appropriate” individual sports is significantly lower than men’s participation in these sports. More striking yet is the media’s (particularly television’s) virtual disregard of women in team sports and certain individual sports. On the basis of these observations, the authors frame their research question: Do these imbalances constitute a symbolic denial of power for women? To answer this question, the authors investigate televised depictions of basketball, surfing, and marathon running. In each sport, the television narratives and visuals of the women’s competition are contrasted with those of the men’s competition. These depictions reveal a profound ambivalence in the reporting of the women’s sports, something that is not present in the reporting of the men’s sports. This ambivalence consists of conflicting messages about female athletes; positive portrayals of sportswomen are combined with subtly negative suggestions that trivialize or undercut the women’s efforts. Such trivialization is a way of denying power to women. The authors conclude by asserting that sport and leisure educators have an ethical obligation to redress the imbalance of power in the sporting world.