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  • Author: Cynthia M. Ferrara x
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Cynthia M. Ferrara and Emily Hollingsworth


To examine relationships between physical characteristics and injuries in adult figure skaters.


One hundred thirty adult figure skaters (113 women and 17 men, 43 ± 9 and 55 ± 10 y old, respectively) completed study questionnaires concerning health, height and weight, exercise habits, and injuries in the preceding year.


The men were older and taller and weighed more than the women (P < .05). Approximately 80% had normal body-mass index (BMI, weight [kg]/height [m]2), and the other 20% were overweight or obese based on BMI. Study participants had been skating for 12 ± 10 y (range 1 to 68 y). Most skate 4 to 5 h/wk (competitive > recreational skaters, P < .05). Although approximately 50% of competitive skaters always warm up or stretch before skating, less than 30% of the recreational skaters always do so (P < .05). Seventy-two skaters (56%) reported at least 1 injury in the preceding year. Most of the injuries were acute injuries to the lower extremity and were related to skating (76%). There were no differences in the incidence of stretching or warm-up activities or the number of hours per week spent skating in those who had incurred a skating-related injury compared with those who had not been injured (P > .05).


The results suggest that adult skaters have training and exercise habits that might increase their risk of injury and impair athletic performance. This suggests the importance of educational programming for adult skaters designed to address injury prevention and basic exercise-training principles.

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Cynthia M. Ferrara, Susan H. McCrone, David Brendle, Alice S. Ryan and Andrew P. Goldberg

The metabolic changes associated with the addition of 4 months of resistive exercise to an existing aerobic exercise program (AEX+RT, n = 7) were compared to a maintenance aerobic exercise program (AEX, n = 8) in overweight, older men. The subjects in this study had recently completed a 6-month aerobic exercise program (treadmill walking, 45 min/d, 2 d/wk). The AEX+RT group added 6 exercises on upper- and lower-body pneumatic-resistance machines (2 sets, 15 repetitions each, 2 d/wk) to an aerobic exercise program at ≥ 70% heart rate reserve for 30–40 min, 2 d/wk on treadmill, while the AEX group continued the same maintenance treadmill AEX program. There were no baseline differences in body weight, VO2max, or glucose metabolism between groups. The AEX+RT group increased upper- and lower-extremity strength by 28 ± 4% and 46 ± 6%, respectively (p < .05), despite a 9% decrease in VO2max (p < .05). VO2max did not change in the AEX group. There was no change in the fasting glucose or insulin levels, or the 3-h glucose responses to an oral glucose load in either group. The insulin responses decreased by 25 ± 4% in the AEX+RT group (p < .01) but did not change in the AEX group. In conclusion, the addition of resistive exercise training to an existing aerobic exercise program may improve insulin sensitivity in overweight, older men, and thus prevent the development of type 2 diabetes.