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  • Author: D. Casey Kerrigan x
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J. Craig Garrison, Joe M. Hart, Riann M. Palmieri, D. Casey Kerrigan and Christopher D. Ingersoll

Context:

Although kinematic analyses are helpful in describing movement differences between genders, kinetic data might further explain the predisposing factors contributing to potential injury during athletic landing maneuvers.

Objective:

To determine whether there are differences in knee moments between male and female varsity college soccer players during a single-leg landing.

Design:

Preexperimental with static group comparison.

Setting:

Motion-analysis laboratory.

Participants:

16 varsity college soccer players (8 men, 8 women).

Intervention:

Subjects performed 5 single-leg landings from a height of 60 cm.

Main Outcome Measures:

Peak internal rotation, valgus, varus, and extension knee moments calculated from raw ground-reaction forces and kinematic data.

Results:

Significant gender differences were present (P = .020), with men exhibiting 31% greater mean peak knee-varus moments than women when landing on a single leg from 60 cm (P = .020).

Conclusions:

Male soccer players demonstrate greater knee-varus moments than female soccer players during single-leg landing. This might be valuable in designing clinical treatment and prevention programs for ACL injuries.

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J. Craig Garrison, Joe M. Hart, Riann M. Palmieri, D. Casey Kerrigan and Christopher D. Ingersoll

Context:

Gender differences in muscle activity during landing have been studied as a possible contributing factor to the greater incidence of anterior cruciate ligament injuries in women.

Objective:

To compare root-mean-square (RMS) electromyography (EMG) of selected lower extremity muscles at initial contact (IC) and at peak knee internal-rotation (IR) moment in men and women during landing.

Design:

Preexperimental design static-group comparison.

Setting:

Motion-analysis laboratory.

Participants:

16 varsity college soccer players (8 men, 8 women).

Main Outcome Measures:

EMG activity of the gluteus medius, lateral hamstrings, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris during landing.

Results:

When RMS EMG of all muscles was considered simultaneously, no significant differences were detected between genders at IC or at peak knee IR moment.

Conclusion:

Male and female college soccer players display similar relative muscle activities of the lower extremity during landing. Gender landing-control parameters might vary depending on the technique used to analyze muscle activity.

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Joseph M. Hart, J. Craig Garrison, Riann Palmieri-Smith, D. Casey Kerrigan and Christopher D. Ingersoll

Context:

Lower extremity kinetics while performing a single-leg forward jump landing may help explain gender biased risk for noncontact anterior cruciate ligament injury.

Objective:

Gender comparison of lower extremity joint angles and moments.

Design:

Static groups comparison.

Setting:

Motion analysis laboratory.

Patients or Other Participants:

8 male and 8 female varsity, collegiate soccer athletes.

Intervention:

5 single-leg landings from a 100cm forward jump.

Main Outcome Measures:

Peak and initial contact external joint moments and joint angles of the ankle, knee, and hip.

Results:

At initial heel contact, males exhibited a adduction moment whereas females exhibited a abduction moment at the hip. Females also had significantly less peak hip extension moment and significantly less peak hip internal rotation moment than males had. Females exhibited greater knee adduction and hip internal rotation angles than men did.

Conclusions:

When decelerating from a forward jump, gender differences exist in forces acting at the hip.

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Lindsay K. Drewes, Patrick O. McKeon, Gabriele Paolini, Patrick Riley, D. Casey Kerrigan, Christopher D. Ingersoll and Jay Hertel

Context:

Kinematic patterns during gait have not been extensively studied in relation to chronic ankle instability (CAI).

Objective:

To determine whether individuals with CAI demonstrate altered ankle kinematics and shank-rear-foot coupling compared with controls during walking and jogging.

Design:

Case control.

Setting:

Motion-analysis laboratory.

Participants:

7 participants (3 men, 4 women) suffering from CAI (age 24.6 ± 4.2 y, height 172.6 ± 9.4 cm, mass 70.9 ± 8.1 kg) and 7 (3 men, 4 women) healthy, matched controls (age 24.7 ± 4.5 y, height 168.2 ± 5.9 cm, mass 66.5 ± 9.8 kg).

Interventions:

Subjects walked and jogged on a treadmill while 3-dimensional kinematics of the lower extremities were captured.

Main Outcome Measures:

The positions of rear-foot inversion–eversion and shank rotation were calculated throughout the gait cycle. Continuous relative-phase angles between these segments were calculated to assess coupling.

Results:

The CAI group demonstrated more rear-foot inversion and shank external rotation during walking and jogging. There were differences between groups in shank-rear-foot coupling during terminal swing at both speeds.

Conclusions:

Altered ankle kinematics and joint coupling during the terminal-swing phase of gait may predispose a population with CAI to ankle-inversion injuries. Less coordinated movement during gait may be an indication of altered neuromuscular recruitment of the musculature surrounding the ankle as the foot is being positioned for initial contact.