Dean F. Anderson, Fred O. Lorenz and Dale G. Pease
This investigation examined the change in children’s participation and attitudes toward sport team involvement from late elementary school to the beginning of high school. A questionnaire designed to measure importance of rewards was given to all 5th and 6th graders (n = 238) from a community with an extensive sports program. Five years later, as 10th and 11th graders, 166 (71%) of the original group participated in the follow-up study. Factor analysis extracted two consistent factors at both questionnaire administrations. One was labeled “extrinsic reward” while the other was labeled “intrinsic satisfaction.” A logit analysis using weighted least squares indicated that past participation and gender as well as the interaction of the importance given to the two reward systems contributed significantly to predicting present participation. An additional model including present value given to reward systems suggested that present value for intrinsic satisfaction might improve prediction of present participation.
James J. Zhang, Dale G. Pease and Dennis W. Smith
This study assessed the relationship between broadcasting and the attendance of minor league hockey games in terms of 5 media forms: cable television broadcasting, commercial television broadcasting, radio broadcasting, broadcasters, and overall broadcasting media. A random sample of spectators (N = 2,225) responded to a survey on attendance level and media use conducted in the arena during the intermissions of games from 6 second-half 1994-1995 season home games of an International Hockey League (ML) team. CM-square, f-test, and regression analyses revealed that viewing home games on cable television and away games on commercial television, listening to games on radio, and the quality of television and cable broadcasters were all positively associated with attendance, with approximately 6-11% game attendance variance explained. It is concluded that the current broadcasting arrangement is positively related to game attendance in providing information for and increasing the interests of spectators.