Background: The benefits of weight loss programs on mood, cognitive, and motor behavior are largely limited to those of calorie restriction or exercise alone. Our aim was to investigate the effect of combined calorie restriction and aerobic exercise intervention on mood, brain activity, and cognitive and motor behavior in overweight and obese women. Methods: Participants aged 36–56 years were randomized to either a control or an experimental group (aerobic exercise + 12.5% energy intake reduction) for a 6-month period. Changes in brain-derived neurotrophic factor levels, mood, prefrontal cortex activity, cognitive and motor performance were assessed. Results: Confusion and depression increased in the control group (P < .05), whereas tension decreased in the experimental group (P < .05). Brain-derived neurotrophic factor level and learning of a speed–accuracy task remained unchanged. Although prefrontal cortex activity and executive functions were not affected, the reaction time of visual scanning and associative learning were improved in the experimental group (P < .05). An improvement in reaction time during the speed–accuracy task was observed (P < .05). Conclusion: Combined calorie restriction and aerobic exercise intervention improved the psychosocial state, had little impact on cognition, and no effect on brain activity and learning of the speed–accuracy task.
Laura Žlibinaitė, Rima Solianik, Daiva Vizbaraitė, Dalia Mickevičienė and Albertas Skurvydas
Dalia Mickeviciene, Renata Rutkauskaite, Dovile Valanciene, Diana Karanauskiene, Marius Brazaitis and Albertas Skurvydas
The aim of the study was to establish whether there were differences in speed–accuracy movement learning strategies between children, young adults, and older adults. A total of 30 boys, 30 young adult men, and 30 older men were seated in a special chair at a table with a Dynamic Parameter Analyzer 1. Participants had to perform a speed–accuracy task with the right-dominant hand. It may be assumed that the motor variables of children are more prone to change during the fast learning process than those of young adults and older adults and that the development of internal models is more changeable in children than in young adults and the older adults during the fast adaptation-based learning process.