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The Transtheoretical Model: An Exploratory Look at Its Applicability to Injury Rehabilitation

Damien Clement

Context:

The transtheoretical model has been widely used in the investigation of how people adapt to new behaviors; however, the literature appears to be lacking documentation of any assessment/s administered to injured athletes to determine their readiness for rehabilitation, which depending on the severity of the injury, could possibly represent a behavior change for that individual.

Objective:

To validate the application of the transtheoretical model to injury rehabilitation and assess the impact of stages of change on athletes’ adherence and compliance rates.

Design:

Descriptive correlational.

Setting:

Large Mid Atlantic Division I institution.

Participants:

Seventy injured athletes.

Main Outcome Measures:

Readiness was assessed using the Transtheoretical Model. Adherence was assessed using the percentage of rehabilitation attendance and compliance was assessed using the Sport Injury Rehabilitation Scale.

Results:

Participants who were advanced in their stages of change generally reported an increase in self efficacy, utilization of pros versus cons, and the use of behavioral processes instead of experiential processes of change. No significant relationships were found between stages of change and athletes’ adherence and compliance.

Conclusion:

Although no statistical significance was found between stages of change and adherence and compliance the results did validate the application of the transtheoretical model to injury rehabilitation.

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Conquering ACL Surgery and Rehabilitation [Multimedia interactive CD-ROM]

Damien Clement

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A Preliminary Exploration of the Application of Self-Compassion Within the Context of Sport Injury

Zenzi Huysmans and Damien Clement

In a prospective study of collegiate athletes (N = 117), the application of self-compassion within the context of sport injury was explored. Previous literature indicated that self-compassion enhances adaptive coping and well-being and reduces anxiety in stress-provoking situations. This research suggested that it could potentially reduce the stress response and subsequent injury risk. Findings indicated that self-compassion may buffer the experience of somatic anxiety (rs = −.436, p < .01) and worry (rs = −.351, p < .01), and reduce the engagement of avoidance-focused coping strategies (rs = −.362, p < .01). There were no significant findings related to self-compassion and injury reduction. A challenge with this research is distinguishing the impact of resistance to self-compassion from the potential benefits that it may have on coping and appraisal of stress in sport. This research was a preliminary exploration of self-compassion within the context of responses to stress and subsequent injury risk. Results suggest that further investigation across different athletic populations, sports, and injury situations is warranted.

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The Impact of a Workshop on Athletic Training Students’ Sport Psychology Behaviors

Damien Clement and Vanessa Shannon

The current study’s primary purpose was to determine the impact of a sport psychology workshop on athletic training students’ sport psychology behaviors. Using a quasi-experimental research design, partial randomization was used to assign athletic training students (n = 160) to a treatment group or control group. A 2 × 2 repeated measures MANOVA revealed a significant multivariate effect for Group x Time interaction [Wilks’s Λ = .22, F (5, 154) = 1, p < .001, η2 = .77]. Follow up ANOVAs revealed significant interactions for all sport psychology behaviors (allp < .01) except referring an injured athlete to a sport psychologist. Results from the current study revealed that members of the experimental group reported a significant increase in their use of total sport psychology behaviors at the six week follow-up when compared with those in the control group. Such increases highlight the need for increased exposure of athletic training students to sport psychology. Given the potential benefits that could be derived from the incorporation of sport psychology skills and techniques into injury rehabilitation by athletic training students’, the assertion that injured athletes’ physical rehabilitation could be enhanced with the incorporation of psychological skills and techniques appears to be supported.

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Injured Athletes’ Perceptions About Social Support

Damien Clement and Vanessa R. Shannon

Context:

According to the buffering hypothesis, social support moderates the harmful effects of stress and, in turn, indirectly affects injured athletes’ health and well-being. Previous research suggests that perceptions of social support influence athletes’ psychological reactions, as well as their rehabilitation adherence, but additional research in this area is warranted.

Objective:

To examine injured athletes’ perceptions regarding satisfaction, availability, and contribution for each of the 8 types of social support.

Design:

Descriptive.

Setting:

Mid-Atlantic Division II and III institutions.

Participants:

49 injured athletes.

Main Outcome Measures:

Social support was assessed using a modified version of the Social Support Survey.

Results:

Injured athletes were significantly more satisfied with social support provided by athletic trainers (ATCs) than that provided by coaches and teammates. In addition, injured athletes reported that social support provided by ATCs contributed significantly more to their overall well-being. Athletes reported several significant differences regarding satisfaction and contribution to well-being among the 8 different types of social support.

Conclusions:

Injury, an unavoidable part of sport, is often accompanied by negative psychological reactions. This reaction may have a negative influence on an athlete’s experience of injury and rehabilitation. Findings suggest that perceptions of social support provided by ATCs have the greatest influence on injured athletes’ rehabilitation and well-being.

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An Investigation Into Former High School Athletes’ Experiences of a Multidisciplinary Approach to Sport Injury Rehabilitation

Damien Clement and Monna Arvinen-Barrow

Context: A multidisciplinary approach is one of the many forms of professional practice that can be utilized by sports medicine professionals to provide care to injured athletes. While this approach has been empirically supported in the health care domain, studies supporting its utilization in the sport injury rehabilitation context—particularly at the high school level—are limited. Objective: To investigate former high school athletes’ experiences of a multidisciplinary model of care for sport injury rehabilitation. Design: Cross-sectional survey design. Setting: In-person, in a classroom setting at 2 Division I universities. Patients: A total of 186 former high school athletes. Main Outcome Measure: An author-constructed instrument developed using the multidisciplinary model of care for sport injury rehabilitation as a guide. Results: Family, athletic coaches, and athletic trainers were the closest professionals/individuals that injured athletes reported interacting with during sport injury rehabilitation. The data also revealed that these professionals/individuals had the closest and most direct relationships with the injured athletes. Conclusions: The findings from the present study provided support for the utilization of the multidisciplinary model of care for sport injury rehabilitation with high school athletes.

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Helping Athletic Training Students Deal With Stress

Adam Naylor, Damien Clement, and Todd Gilson

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Exploring the Coach’s Role in Youth Life Skills Development in Southern Africa

Zenzi Huysmans, Damien Clement, Robert Hilliard, and Adam Hansell

A strong body of research supports the meaningful role of coaches in helping youth athletes develop personally and emotionally through the learning of life skills. However, limited exploration of this topic has taken place in non-Western regions where youth face very different developmental challenges. To explore this topic further, nine coaches in Swaziland participated in semi-structured interviews. Inductive thematic analysis revealed that although most coaches found it difficult to articulate a coaching philosophy, they valued developing both the athlete and the person. Coaches focused on teaching a range of life skills and values that were relevant to overcoming the most salient local youth challenges. The main strategies coaches employed to develop life skills were discussion, providing opportunities to build skills, and modelling appropriate behaviours through caring coach-athlete relationships. Results of this study provide further support for the role of coaches as facilitators of life skills learning in the Southern African context. Additional education is needed to help youth coaches craft coaching philosophies that are grounded in life skills outcomes. Future efforts should also focus on developing cost-effective programming to teach coaches how to build caring coach-athlete relationships and intentionally facilitate life skills learning in young people.

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The Effects of Different Types of Training on Cognitive Performance in Professional Esports Players

Clément Thillier, Nicolas Besombes, Nounagnon Frutueux Agbangla, and Damien Vitiello

Over the past decade, the number of studies on cognitive performance in esports has increased in line with its popularity. Cognitive functions like task switching, information processing, attention, and memory have been identified as an integral part of cognitive performance. In parallel, different types of training, ranging from physical to a combination of cognitive and motor tasks, have emerged as promising strategies to improve cognitive function and thus performance of esports players. However, only acute high-intensity interval training was studied in esports players and exclusively in recreational players. Due to the lack of specialized training programs for esports coaches, the small number of professional esports players and the relative youth of professional esports practice, there is a large gap in the literature regarding cognitive performance training methods to improve the cognitive performance of professional esports players. Based on these results, the present invited commentary encourages further studies to be conducted among professional esports players. Indeed, research perspectives are necessary to develop training protocols and optimal training schedules to improve professional esports players’ performance. In addition, this commentary supports the collaboration between academic and professional esports organizations. Finally, we provide recommendations to allow a win-win condition for both researchers and professional esports players in the future.

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Rationale for Using a Pre-Assessment Tool Prior to Injury Rehabilitation

Damien Clement and Vanessa R. Shannon

Edited by Adam Naylor