As the incidence of childhood obesity increases, there is a need to promote leisure time physical activity. Traditional approaches to promote the population physical activity levels have shown at best moderate improvements. High percentage of children today carry a cell phone, thus the use of this portable device seems promising for enhancing physical activity.
Pokémon Go, is a smartphone game that uses augmented reality, where players are incentivized to get out and walk significant distances to catch the Pokémon. Initial reports suggested increases in the number of steps that players performed, yet this effect of the game was not sustained. Incorporating physical activity into modern technology seems promising, clearly there is need to explore creative ways to achieve a longer term effect.
Little evidence exists on which exercise modality is optimal for obese adolescents. Objective: To determine the effects of aerobic training, resistance training, and combined training on percentage body fat in overweight and obese adolescents.
Design, Setting, and Participants:
Randomized, parallel-group clinical trial at community-based exercise facilities in Ottawa (Ontario) and Gatineau (Quebec), Canada, among previously inactive postpubertal adolescents aged 14-18 years (Tanner stage IV or V) with body mass index at or above the 95th percentile for age and sex or at or above the 85th percentile plus an additional diabetes mellitus or cardiovascular risk factor. Interventions: After a 4-week run-in period, 304 participants were randomized to the following 4 groups for 22 weeks: aerobic training (n = 75), resistance training (n = 78), combined aerobic and resistance training (n = 75), or nonexercising control (n = 76). All participants received dietary counseling, with a daily energy deficit of 250 kcal.
Main Outcomes and Measures:
The primary outcome was percentage body fat measured by magnetic resonance imaging at baseline and 6 months. We hypothesized that aerobic training and resistance training would each yield greater decreases than the control and that combined training would cause greater decreases than aerobic or resistance training alone.
Decreases in percentage body fat were −0.3 (95% CI, −0.9 to 0.3) in the control group, −1.1 (95% CI, −1.7 to −0.5) in the aerobic training group (p = .06 vs. controls), and −1.6 (95% CI, −2.2 to −1.0) in the resistance training group (p = .002 vs controls). The −1.4 (95% CI, −2.0 to −0.8) decrease in the combined training group did not differ significantly from that in the aerobic or resistance training group. Waist circumference changes were −0.2 (95% CI, −1.7 to 1.2) cm in the control group, −3.0 (95% CI, −4.4 to −1.6) cm in the aerobic group (p = .006 vs controls), −2.2 (95% CI −3.7 to −0.8) cm in the resistance training group (p = .048 vs controls), and −4.1 (95% CI, −5.5 to −2.7) cm in the combined training group. In per-protocol analyses (> 70% adherence), the combined training group had greater changes in percentage body fat (-2.4, 95% CI, −3.2 to −1.6) vs the aerobic group (-1.2; 95% CI, −2.0 to −0.5; p = .04 vs the combined group) but not the resistance group (-1.6; 95% CI, −2.5 to −0.8).
Conclusions and Relevance:
Aerobic, resistance, and combined training reduced total body fat and waist circumference in obese adolescents. In more adherent participants, combined training may cause greater decreases than aerobic or resistance training alone.
Alon Eliakim and Dan Nemet
The manuscript “Plasma Somatomedin-C in 8- to 10-Year-Old Swimmers” by Denison and Ben-Ezra published in the first issue of Pediatric Exercise Science in 1989 was among the first to address the relationship between growth, the growth hormone (GH)/insulin like growth factor-1 (IGF-1) axis, and exercise. Since their pioneering article, this topic has become of great interest to pediatricians and pediatric exercise researchers, and today our understanding of the effects of exercise training on the growth axis during childhood and puberty, on differences between systemic and local (i.e., muscle) responses to exercise, and our ability to use these responses to assist the adolescent competitive athlete in the evaluation of the training load have markedly improved. The aim of the present review is to summarize our current knowledge on this topic.
Alon Eliakim and Dan Nemet
The diagnosis of Growth Hormone (GH) deficiency in children with short stature is complex, and in certain cases, might be very difficult. Most of the provocative tests used to evaluate GH deficiency use pharmacological agents. The artificial nature of the pharmacological tests and the possibility that these tests might not always reflect GH secretion under normal physiological conditions provides the impetus for a more physiologic test. Exercise is one of the important GH releasing physiological stimuli. This review will summarize the current knowledge on the methods for performing laboratory exercise provocation test for GH secretion in children. In addition to recommendations of more standardized exercise protocols and environmental considerations, we will also focus on GH responses to exercise in unique populations such as obese children.
Alon Eliakim, Dan M. Cooper and Dan Nemet
The present study compares previous reports on the effect of “real-life” typical field individual (ie, cross-country running and wrestling—representing combat versus noncombat sports) and team sports (ie, volleyball and water polo—representing water and land team sports) training on GH and IGF-1, the main growth factors of the GH→IGF axis, in male and female late pubertal athletes. Cross-country running practice and volleyball practice in both males and females were associated with significant increases of circulating GH levels, while none of the practices led to a significant increase in IGF-I levels. The magnitude (percent change) of the GH response to the different practices was determined mainly by preexercise GH levels. There was no difference in the training-associated GH response between individual and team sports practices. The GH response to the different typical practices was not influenced by the practice-associated lactate change. Further studies are needed to better understand the effect of real-life typical training in prepubertal and adolescent athletes and their role in exercise adaptations.
Alon Eliakim, Ita Litmanovitz and Dan Nemet
Premature infants have an increased risk of osteopenia due to limited bone mass accretion in utero and a greater need for bone nutrients. Until recently, most efforts to prevent osteopenia of prematurity focused on nutritional changes. Recent studies indicate that passive range-of-motion exercise of the extremities may lead to beneficial effects on body weight, increased bone mineralization, increased bone formation markers and leptin levels, and attenuation of the natural postnatal decline in bone speed of sound. These results suggest that exercise may play an important role in the prevention and treatment of osteopenia of prematurity. This review summarizes our current knowledge on the role of exercise in the prevention and treatment of osteopenia of prematurity.
Ben-El Berkovich, Aliza H. Stark, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet and Tali Sinai
Fasting, skipping meals, and dehydration are common methods of rapid weight loss used prior to competition in weight category sports. This study examines coaches’ attitudes, perceptions, and practices regarding rapid weight loss among judo and taekwondo athletes. A convenience sample of experienced coaches and trainers (n = 68) completed structured questionnaires. Participants in this study were 33.8 ± 9.3 years old; 57 were males and 11 were females; and 59% were certified coaches, with 71% reporting over 20 years of involvement in sports and 68% having more than 10 years of teaching experience. The majority (90%) reported that they usually supervised athletes through the weight loss process. Interventions for weight loss began at 12.7 ± 1.9 years of age, with a recommended precompetition weight loss duration of 16.2 ± 8.2 days and an average reduction of 1.5 ± 0.7 kg. The majority of the responders (92%) recommended that their athletes practice gradual weight loss methods using a combination of dehydration or increased physical activity (80.3%), sweat suits (50.8%), restricted fluid intake (39.3%), training in heated rooms (27%), and sauna (26.2%). Recommendations of spitting (27.8%) or using laxatives, diuretics, diet pills, or vomiting (21.3%) were also reported. Coaches and trainers often encouraged athletes to cut weight before competition. The methods recommended are potentially harmful with severe health risks, including compromised nutritional status and diminished athletic performance. This is of particular concern in young athletes who are still growing and developing physically. Enhancing knowledge and awareness for coaches, athletes, and parents regarding potential dangers, along with improved nutrition education, is critical for reducing the magnitude and misuse of rapid weight loss methods.
Ben-El Berkovich, Alon Eliakim, Dan Nemet, Aliza Hannah Stark and Tali Sinai
Athletes competing in individual sports such as judo are categorized by weight. Before competitions, weight cutting is common. This cross-sectional study was designed to characterize and determine the prevalence of rapid weight loss (RWL) among adolescent judo competitors. Male athletes aged 12- to 17-years old (N = 108) were recruited from local judo teams. Each participant completed a validated questionnaire regarding RWL practices. Anthropometric measurements were also performed. Average age was 14.6 ± 1.6 years and all participants were of normal body mass index (BMI). RWL was practiced by 80% of the athletes before competition, beginning at an average age of 12.5 ± 2.2 years with the highest prevalence (~94%) in the oldest group of judoka (16–17.9 years). Precompetition weight loss duration was 8 ± 5.4 days, with an average weight reduction of 1.5 ± 1.1 kg. The number of weight loss efforts per athlete in the past season was 2.8 ± 2.2. RWL was achieved by increased physical activity (82.6%), skipped meals (56.3%), or fasting at least once (47%). Two-thirds of the athletes indicated that their coaches were the most influential figure in their decision to lose weight before competition. RWL is highly prevalent in adolescent judo competitors. The methods used by these athletes can potentially lead to significant health risks including compromised nutritional status, diminished physical performance and impaired growth and development. It is of great importance to insure that those who guide young adults in weight loss for competitive sports have the knowledge and understanding to make safe recommendations and appropriate decisions regarding achieving specific weight goals.