In this study, experienced physical education teachers’ observation skills in teaching situations are compared to that of first- and last-year student teachers. The 56 participants were shown 12 slides from a gymnastics lesson, and after viewing it for 4 s, they were asked to report what they had seen. The number of items and critical events reported were analyzed. No significant differences were found between the three groups on the number of events reported or for the number and duration of the eye fixations. Significant differences were found for the number of critical events reported and fixated. Last-year students and experienced teachers correctly reported more critical events on the slide scenes than first year students, but there were no significant differences in observational capacities between last year students and experienced teachers. This study demonstrated the need for observational training, not only during preservice, but also for inservice teachers.
The purpose of this research was to examine and compare physical educators’ value profiles in Flanders, Belgium. The revised Value Orientation Inventory (Ennis & Chen. 1995) was used to collect data from 274 preservice teachers and 637 inservice teachers at the secondary level. Descriptive data on teachers’ value profiles were consistent with data gathered in the United States by Ennis and colleagues. Years of teaching experience and type of teaching degree were related to differences in values, but gender was not. The value profiles of both preservice teachers and inservice teachers reflected the recently introduced curricular innovations and physical education concepts. The teachers in this study placed a high priority on their social responsibility orientation, not supporting the traditional dominance of the disciplinary mastery orientation. The findings suggest that the process of enculturation and social construction (Pajares, 1992) created educational beliefs that are similar to the value orientations observed in other studies.
The purpose of this study was to identify and assess the concerns of preservice physical education teachers at the University of Leuven (Belgium). In two studies, data were obtained with two different methodologies, namely a questionnaire and the logbook. In the first study the Teacher Concerns Questionnaire (TCQ) was administered to 100 students on three occasions during their early field teaching experiences. Of the three types of concern—self, task, and impact—only impact concern increased significantly and could be identified as a stable factor. In line with related studies, data did not reveal the three stages of Fuller’s concern model. In the second study written concerns were gathered using the logbook method. Concerns about pupil control and organization were found most frequently. Finally, concerns obtained from the TCQ were compared with the written ones. The contradicting findings suggest there are both idealistic and realistic concerns. Further research into a valid instrument for assessing concerns of prospective physical educators is recommended.
Peter Iserbyt, Jan Elen and Daniël Behets
This article addresses the issue of instructional guidance in reciprocal peer tutoring with task cards as learning tools. Eighty-six Kinesiology students (age 17–19 years) were randomized across four reciprocal peer tutoring settings, differing in quality and quantity of guidance, to learn Basic Life Support (BLS) with task cards. The separate and combined effect of two instructional guidance variables, role switching and role definition, was investigated on learning outcomes. In all settings student pairs were given 20 min to learn BLS. Individual student performance was measured before (baseline), immediately after (intervention) and two weeks later (retention). Repeated ANOVA showed strong learning gains but no significant differences between groups for total BLS scores. However, at retention significantly more students from the most guided condition remembered and consequently performed all BLS skills. It is concluded that guidance comprising role switching and role definition enhances skill retention in reciprocal peer tutoring with task cards.
Peter Iserbyt, Bob Madou, Lieven Vergauwen and Daniel Behets
This study compared the motor skill effects of a peer teaching format by means of task cards with a teacher-centered format. Tennis performance of eighth grade students (n = 55) was measured before and after a four week intervention period in a regular physical education program. Results show that peer mediated learning with task cards accomplishes motor goals almost as well as a teacher-centered format in a technical sport like tennis. In addition, it is discussed that peer mediated learning settings with task cards could offer a powerful learning environment, emphasizing social as well as motor goals in physical education.