Purpose: To determine and compare the external match load, according to sport class (FT), of footballers with cerebral palsy (CP) during the International Federation of CP Football World Championships Qualification Tournament. Methods: Forty-two international male footballers with CP participated in the data collection. The footballers with CP were classified according to their FT into 3 groups (ie, FT5/6, FT7, and FT8). External match load (ie, total distance covered, distance covered at different speeds, accelerations, decelerations, player load, peak metabolic power, and changes of directions) was collected for both halves during official matches with global positioning system devices. Results: Players with lower impairment (FT8) covered more distance (effect size = 0.30–0.60) at high-intensity running (13.0–18.0 km·h−1) and sprinting (>18.0 km·h−1) and performed more (effect size = 0.29–1.08) accelerations, decelerations, and changes of direction at high intensity in matches than did other players (ie, FT5/6 and FT7 groups). Conclusion: Because high-intensity actions are relevant to football performance and there are differences caused by players’ impairments, the International Federation of CP Football classification protocols should include high-intensity actions during the technical assessment as part of the procedures for determining the sport class of football players with CP.
Javier Yanci, Daniel Castillo, Aitor Iturricastillo, Tomás Urbán and Raúl Reina
Daniel Castillo, Matthew Weston, Shaun J. McLaren, Jesús Cámara and Javier Yanci
The aims of this study were to describe the internal and external match loads (ML) of refereeing activity during official soccer matches and to investigate the relationship among the methods of ML quantification across a competitive season. A further aim was to examine the usefulness of differential perceived exertion (dRPE) as a tool for monitoring internal ML in soccer referees. Twenty field referees (FRs) and 43 assistant referees (ARs) participated in the study. Data were collected from 30 competitive matches (FR = 20 observations, AR = 43 observations) and included measures of internal (Edwards’ heart-rate-derived training impulse [TRIMPEDW]) ML, external (total distance covered, distance covered at high speeds, and player load) ML, and ML differentiated ratings of perceived respiratory (sRPEres) and leg-muscle (sRPEmus) exertion. Internal and external ML were all greater for FRs than for ARs (–19.7 to –72.5), with differences ranging from very likely very large to most likely extremely large. The relationships between internal-ML and external-ML indicators were, in most cases, unclear for FR (r < .35) and small to moderate for AR (r < .40). The authors found substantial differences between RPEres and RPEmus scores in both FRs (0.6 AU; ±90% confidence limits 0.4 AU) and ARs (0.4; ±0.3). These data demonstrate the multifaceted demands of soccer refereeing and thereby highlight the importance of monitoring both internal and external ML. Moreover, dRPE represents distinct dimensions of effort and may be useful in monitoring soccer referees’ ML during official matches.
Javier Raya-González, Fabio Yuzo Nakamura, Daniel Castillo, Javier Yanci and Maurizio Fanchini
Purpose: To examine the association and predictive ability of internal load markers with regard to noncontact injuries in young elite soccer players. Methods: Twenty-two soccer players (18.6 [0.6] y) who competed in the Spanish U19 League participated in the study. During a full season, noncontact injuries were recorded and, using session rating of perceived exertion, internal weekly load (sum of load of all training sessions and matches for each week) and acute:chronic workload ratio (typically, acute = current week and chronic = rolling 4-wk average) were calculated. A generalized estimating equation analysis was used to examine the association of weekly and acute:chronic load-ratio markers with a noncontact injury in the subsequent week. Load variables were also analyzed for predictive ability with receiver operating characteristic curve and area under the curve. Results: No association was found for weekly load (odds ratio = 1.00; 90% confidence interval, 0.99–1.00) and acute:chronic load ratio (odds ratio = 0.16; 90% confidence interval, 0.01–1.84) with respect to injury occurrence. In addition, the analyzed load markers showed poor ability to predict injury occurrence (area under the curve < .50). Conclusions: The results of this study suggest that internal load markers are not associated with noncontact injuries in young soccer players and present poor predictive capacity with regard to the latter.