This study examined the relationship between perfectionism and goal orientations among male Canadian Football players (M age = 18.24 years). Athletes (N = 174) completed inventories to assess perfectionist orientations and goal orientations in sport. Perfectionism was conceptualized as a multidimensional construct and was measured with a newly constructed sport-specific version of the Multidimensional Perfectionism Scale (MPS; Frost, Marten, Lahart, & Rosenblate, 1990). Exploratory factor analysis of the modified MPS revealed four sport-related perfectionism dimensions: perceived parental pressure, personal standards, concern over mistakes, and perceived coach pressure. Canonical correlation analysis obtained two significant canonical functions (R C1 = .36; R C2 = .30). The first one revealed that task orientation was positively correlated with an adaptive profile of perfectionism. The second one revealed that ego orientation was positively associated with a maladaptive profile of perfectionism. Results are discussed in the context of Hamachek’s (1978) conceptualization of adaptive and maladaptive perfectionism.
John G.H. Dunn, Janice Causgrove Dunn and Daniel G. Syrotuik
John G.H. Dunn, Janice Causgrove Dunn, Philip Wilson and Daniel G. Syrotuik
Since Smith, Smoll, and Schutz (1990) published their work describing the development of the Sport Anxiety Scale (SAS)—a multidimensional measure of competitive trait anxiety—few researchers have evaluated or replicated the factorial composition and factor structure of the instrument. The purpose of this article was to investigate the factorial composition and factor structure of the SAS among 3 independent samples of male intercollegiate and high-school-age athletes (N = 504). In accordance with theoretical expectations, results of exploratory and confirmatory factor analyses indicated that the SAS consists of 3 subscales measuring somatic anxiety, cognitive anxiety/worry, and concentration disruption. However, exploratory and confirmatory factor-analytic results showed that 2 items originally designed to measure concentration disruption did not load on the expected factor. Explanations as to why the concentration disruption subscale did not function in accordance with theoretical expectations are offered, along with recommendations for continued psychometric assessment of the instrument.
Daniel G. Syrotuik, Kirsten L. MacFadyen, Vicki J. Harber and Gordon J. Bell
To examine the effects of elk velvet antler supplementation (EVA) combined with training on resting and exercise-stimulated hormonal response, male (n = 25) and female (n = 21) rowers ingested either E VA (560 mg/d) or placebo (PL) during 10 wk of training. VO2max, 2000 m rowing time, leg and bench press strength were determined before and after 5 and 10 wk of training. Serum hormone levels were measured prior to and 5 and 60 min after a simulated 2000 m rowing race. VO2max and strength increased and 2000 m times decreased similarly (P < 0.05) with training. There was no significant difference between the EVA and PL group for any hormonal response. Testosterone (males only) and growth hormone (both genders) were higher 5 min after the simulated race (P < 0.05) but returned to baseline at 60 min. Cortisol was higher 5 and 60 min compared to rest (both genders) (P < 0.05) and was higher 60 min post-exercise following 5 and 10 wk of training. It appears that 10 wk of EVA supplementation does not significantly improve rowing performance nor alter hormonal responses at rest or after acute exercise than training alone.