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Sabrina Skorski, Stefan Skorski, Oliver Faude, Daniel Hammes and Tim Meyer


To investigate whether anthropometric profiles and fitness measures vary according to birth-date distribution in the German national youth soccer teams and to analyze whether there is a difference in the chance of becoming a professional soccer player depending on birth quarter (BQ).


First, 554 players were divided into 6 age groups (U16–U21), each subdivided into 4 BQs. Every player performed at least one 30-m sprint, a countermovement jump, and an incremental test to determine individual anaerobic threshold. For players performing more than 1 test within a team, the best 1 was included. Since some players were part of several different teams, a total of 832 data sets from 495 individual soccer players, all born from 1987 to 1995, divided into 6 age categories (U16–U21) were included.


Overall, more players were born in BQ1 than in all other BQs (P < .05). No significant difference between BQs could be observed in any anthropometric or performance characteristics (P > .18). Players born in BQ4 were more likely to become professional than those born in BQ1 (odds ratio 3.04, confidence limits 1.53–6.06).


A relative age effect exists in elite German youth soccer, but it is not explained by an advantage in anthropometric or performance-related parameters. Younger players selected into national teams have a greater chance to become professionals later in their career.

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Daniel Hammes, Sabrina Skorski, Sascha Schwindling, Alexander Ferrauti, Mark Pfeiffer, Michael Kellmann and Tim Meyer

The Lamberts and Lambert Submaximal Cycle Test (LSCT) is a novel test designed to monitor performance and fatigue/recovery in cyclists. Studies have shown the ability to predict performance; however, there is a lack of studies concerning monitoring of fatigue/recovery. In this study, 23 trained male cyclists (age 29 ± 8 y, VO2max 59.4 ± 7.4 mL · min−1 · kg−1) completed a training camp. The LSCT was conducted on days 1, 8, and 11. After day 1, an intensive 6-day training period was performed. Between days 8 and 11, a recovery period was realized. The LSCT consists of 3 stages with fixed heart rates of 6 min at 60% and 80% and 3 min at 90% of maximum heart rate. During the stages, power output and rating of perceived exertion (RPE) were determined. Heart-rate recovery was measured after stage 3. Power output almost certainly (standardized mean difference: 1.0) and RPE very likely (1.7) increased from day 1 to day 8 at stage 2. Power output likely (0.4) and RPE almost certainly (2.6) increased at stage 3. From day 8 to day 11, power output possibly (–0.4) and RPE likely (–1.5) decreased at stage 2 and possibly (–0.1) and almost certainly (–1.9) at stage 3. Heart-rate recovery was likely (0.7) accelerated from day 1 to day 8. Changes from day 8 to day 11 were unclear (–0.1). The LSCT can be used for monitoring fatigue and recovery, since parameters were responsive to a fatiguing training and a following recovery period. However, consideration of multiple LSCT variables is required to interpret the results correctly.