Alcohol consumption at college football games concerns stadium and university administrators because of the risk of alcohol-related crime, injury, and other potential problems. The purpose of this study was to determine how many of the 120 NCAA Division I Football Bowl Subdivision athletic department Web sites posted their stadium alcohol policies, what their alcohol policies contained, and how they differed. An analysis of information about the availability of alcohol, restrictions on alcohol consumption, and the enforcement of the policies on their official university-sponsored athletic department stadium Web sites was conducted. Results of the study suggested that alcohol policy information is often unavailable or difficult to locate. College athletic department Web sites are typically filled with varying information about their sport teams, but because of the layout and busy nature of such sites, it is often difficult to find certain information on them.
Brian E. Menaker and Daniel P. Connaughton
Jeffrey A. Bauer, Thomas S. Thomas and Daniel P. Connaughton
Lower back discomfort is common among users of standard vertical stair-climbing machines. A partially reclined stair-climbing machine (PRSC) has been designed to provide more comfort and protection to the lower back while providing the same exercise benefits. Ten individuals were recruited to exercise on both machines while their erector spinae electromyographic activity and heart rates were recorded. There was no significant difference (p < .05) in erector spinae muscle activity during exercise on either machine. Workout intensity levels necessary to achieve target heart rates were established during a familiarization session and tracked during exercise. The mean heart rates for both groups remained within the target zones throughout the exercise sessions, but a nonsignificant (p > .05) trend toward increased heart rate on both machines was observed in the women participants. Because of the high incidence of low back pain and injury, we need exercise modalities that provide both cardiovascular and muscular fitness development without placing additional stress on this region.
Shintaro Sato, Yong Jae Ko, Kyriaki (Kiki) Kaplanidou and Daniel P. Connaughton
The purpose of this study was to examine consumers’ comparative judgment of athlete endorsers in back-toback advertisement settings. Drawing on the inclusion/exclusion model (Schwarz & Bless, 2007), the authors argue that (a) a recently observed athlete endorser impacts consumer judgment of subsequently presented endorsers, and (b) the valence of the impact depends on brand category membership of the consecutively presented endorsers. A 2 (representative endorser activation: present vs. absent) × 2 (brand category membership: membership vs. nonmembership) between-subjects design was administered across three experiments. Results demonstrated that the presence of a representative endorser increased a subsequently presented endorser’s perceived expertise when that subsequent endorser represented the same brand category. Results also demonstrated that the presence of a representative endorser decreased a subsequently presented endorser’s perceived expertise when that subsequent endorser did not represent the same brand category. Overall, these findings support both assimilation and contrast effects. The authors argue how this outcome can assist advertising managers to strategically position appropriate endorsers in marketing platforms.