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Danny Lum and Abdul Rashid Aziz

Force–time characteristics obtained during isometric strength tests are significantly correlated to various sporting movements. However, data on the relationship between isometric force–time characteristics and sprint kayaking performance are lacking in the literature. Purpose: The purpose of the study was, therefore, to investigate the relationship between sprint kayaking performance with ergometer performance and measures from 3 isometric strength tests: isometric squat, isometric bench press, and isometric prone bench pull. Methods: A total of 23 sprint kayaking athletes performed all 3 tests, at 90° and 120° knee angles for isometric squat and at elbow angles for isometric bench press and isometric prone bench pull, and a 200-m sprint on-water to attain the fastest time-to-completion (OWTT) possible and on a kayak ergometer to attain the highest mean power (LABTT) possible. Results: There was a significant inverse correlation between OWTT and LABTT (r = −.90, P < .001). The peak forces achieved from all isometric strength tests were significantly correlated with time-to-completion for OWTT and mean power for LABTT (r = −.44 to −.88, P < .05 and .47 to .80, P < .05, respectively). OWTT was significantly correlated with the peak rate of force development during all isometric tests except for the isometric squat at a 120° knee angle (r = −.47 to −.62, P < .05). LABTT was significantly correlated with peak rate of force development from the isometric bench press and isometric prone bench pull (r = .64–.86, P < .01). Conclusion: Based on the observed strong correlations, the mean power attained during LABTT is a good predictor of OWTT time-to-completion. Furthermore, upper- and lower-body maximum strength and peak rate of force development are equally important for on-water and ergometer sprint kayaking performance.

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Danny Lum and Tiago M. Barbosa

Purpose: To evaluate the effect of strength training on Olympic time-based sports (OTBS) time-trial performance and provide an estimate of the impact of type of strength training, age, training status, and training duration on OTBS time-trial performance. Methods: A search on 3 electronic databases was conducted. The analysis comprised 32 effects in 28 studies. Posttest time-trial performance of intervention and control group from each study was used to estimate the standardized magnitude of impact of strength training on OTBS time-trial performance. Results: Strength training had a moderate positive effect on OTBS time-trial performance (effect size = 0.59, P < .01). Subgroup meta-analysis showed that heavy weight training (effect size = 0.30, P = .01) produced a significant effect, whereas other modes did not induce significant effects. Training status as factorial covariate was significant for well-trained athletes (effect size = 0.62, P = .04), but not for other training levels. Meta-regression analysis yielded nonsignificant relationship with age of the participants recruited (β = −0.04; 95% confidence interval, −0.08 to 0.004; P = .07) and training duration (β = −0.05; 95% confidence interval, −0.11 to 0.02; P = .15) as continuous covariates. Conclusion: Heavy weight training is an effective method for improving OTBS time-trial performance. Strength training has greatest impact on well-trained athletes regardless of age and training duration.

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Danny Lum, Swee Keng Soh, Cheryl J.H. Teo, Olivia Q.H. Wong, and Marcus J.C. Lee

Isometric strength training has been reported to benefit various sport-related dynamic performances. However, it is still unknown whether performing isometric strength training at single or multiple joint angles would elicit greater benefit. Purpose: To compare the effects of isometric bench press performed at single (SIBP) and multiple (MIBP) joint angles on dynamic strength and overhead throwing performance. Methods: Sixteen male softball and baseball athletes performed overhead throwing, 1-repetition-maximum (1RM) bench press, and ballistic push-up during pretest and posttest. They were then randomly assigned to either SIBP or MIBP to undergo 12 strength training sessions. During the training, isometric bench press was performed at only 90° elbow angle for SIBP but at 60°, 90°, and 120° elbow angles for MIBP. Results: A significant main time effect was observed for bench press 1RM (P = .003) and relative 1RM (P < .001). Similarly, a significant main time effect was observed for ballistic push-up peak power only (P = .037). There was no significant change in overhead throwing velocity in either group. There was also no significant difference in change in all measures between groups. However, a moderate effect in favor of MIBP was observed for change in ballistic push-up peak power (P = .180, g = 0.67). Conclusions : Based on the current findings, the inclusion of both SIBP and MIBP were equally beneficial to maximal strength development. However, performing MIBP had a greater effect on power development.