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Darin A. Padua and Stephen W. Marshall

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Charles A. Thigpen and Darin A. Padua

Column-editor : Carl G. Mattacola

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Marjorie A. King

Column-editor : Darin A. Padua

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Edgar V. Tabila and Leamor Kahanov

Edited by Darin A. Padua

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Luzita Isabel Vela

Edited by Darin A. Padua

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Christopher J. Hirth

Column-editor : Darin A. Padua

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Darin A. Padua, Kevin M. Guskiewicz, William E. Prentice, Robert E. Schneider and Edgar W. Shields

Objective:

To determine whether select shoulder exercises influence shoulder-rotation strength, active angle reproduction (AAR), single-arm dynamic stability, and functional throwing performance in healthy individuals.

Design:

Pretest–posttest.

Setting:

Laboratory.

Participants:

54, randomly placed in 4 training groups.

Intervention:

Four 5-week training protocols.

Main Outcome Measures:

Average shoulder-rotation torque, AAR, single-arm dynamic stability, and functional throwing performance.

Results:

Repeated-measures ANOVAs revealed a significant group-by-test interaction for average torque (P > .05). Post hoc analyses revealed significantly increased average torque in the open kinetic chain and proprioceptive neuromuscular facilitation (PNF) groups after training. AAR and sway velocity were not affected in any of the groups (P > .05), but functional performance revealed a significant group-by-test interaction (P < .05). Post hoc analysis demonstrated that the PNF group significantly improved after training (P < .05).

Conclusions:

Shoulder strength can be improved in healthy individuals, but improvements depend on the exercise performed. Shoulder proprioception and neuromuscular control were unchanged in all groups, but functional performance improved in the PNF group

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Darin A. Padua and J. Troy Blackburn

Column-editor : Thomas W. Kaminski

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Timothy C. Mauntel, Barnett S. Frank, Rebecca L. Begalle, J. Troy Blackburn and Darin A. Padua

A greater knee valgus angle is a risk factor for lower extremity injuries. Visually observed medial knee displacement is used as a proxy for knee valgus motion during movement assessments in an attempt to identify individuals at heightened risk for injury. The validity of medial knee displacement as an indicator of valgus motion has yet to be determined during a single-leg squat. This study compared three-dimensional knee and hip angles between participants who displayed medial knee displacement (MKD group) during a single-leg squat and those who did not (control group). Participants completed five single-leg squats. An electromagnetic motion tracking system was used to quantify peak knee and hip joint angles during the descent phase of each squat. MANOVA identified a difference between the MKD and control group kinematics. ANOVA post hoc testing revealed greater knee valgus angle in the MKD (12.86 ± 5.76) compared with the control (6.08 ± 5.23) group. There were no other differences between groups. Medial knee displacement is indicative of knee valgus motion; however, it is not indicative of greater knee or hip rotation, or hip adduction. These data indicate that clinicians can accurately identify individuals with greater knee valgus angle through visually observed medial knee displacement.