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Chapter 3: A Comparison of High and Low Performing Secondary Physical Education Programs

Darla Castelli and Judith Rink

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Health-Related Fitness and Physical Education Teachers’ Content Knowledge

Darla Castelli and Lori Williams

This study examined what teachers know about health-related fitness (HRF) and how confident they are in their knowledge. Seventy-three middle school physical education teachers completed a 3-part cognitive HRF test and a self-efficacy questionnaire that required responses to statements about how confident they were in passing a HRF knowledge test. Results indicated that teachers were very confident in their knowledge of HRF; however, their actual HRF test scores did not meet the standard of achievement expected of a ninth-grade student as assessed by the South Carolina Physical Education Assessment Program. Further investigation of the influence of teacher characteristics related to HRF knowledge revealed that age and years of teaching experience significantly related to self-efficacy but not to HRF knowledge. This study implies that targeted teacher development is a necessary part of attaining and maintaining HRF knowledge required to teach to state and national standards.

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Physical Activity Interventions to Reduce Metabolic Risk Factors to Cognitive Health

Darla Castelli and Christine Julien

Physical activity is a health-protective factor that can reduce disease risk in later life. Designing interventions that increase physical activity participation are paramount but need to increase potency and reduce the time to effectiveness. This paper aims to outline one transdisciplinary, team science effort to increase behavioral intervention potency through the integration of the autonomous cognition model whereby data guide each decision in developing a school-based physical activity intervention. Examples of data collected by stage and a summary of potential action steps are provided.

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Chapter 2: Student Performance Data, School Attributes, and Relationships

Murray Mitchell, Darla Castelli, and Skip Strainer

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Chapter 3: The Relationship of Physical Fitness and Motor Competence to Physical Activity

Darla M. Castelli and Julia A. Valley

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Chapter 4: A Comparison of Personal Attributes and Experiences among Physically Active and Inactive Children

Darla M. Castelli and Heather E. Erwin

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Large-Scale Physical Education Interventions: Past, Present, and Future

Darla M. Castelli and Ang Chen

A large body of Catherine Ennis’s work is focused on physical education curriculum development. Her approach to curriculum development is unique in that it is completely based on research evidence. The curricula she developed have been field-tested and the completed curriculum is supported with solid research evidence to demonstrate its efficacy in student learning and teacher ease of use. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview and explore opportunities to continue large-scale physical education curriculum intervention studies. The authors first provide a brief review of previous intervention studies by summarizing the findings and discussing implications. They then discuss potential future intervention studies by presenting several topics that are being explored by researchers in current interventions. Finally, they focus on methodology issues involved in designing effective curriculum intervention studies with the idea of adaptive designs as variations of the randomized clinical trial design.

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Chapter 7: Selective Integration: Roles for Public Health, Kinesiology, and Physical Education

Darla M. Castelli and Latrice Sales Mitchell

The authors explore the priorities for American physical education in the 21st century and reconsider the role of physical education teacher education. Purpose: This chapter will discuss the potential intersection of kinesiology, physical education, and public health with the assumption that their selective integration has the potential to stimulate the development of innovative pedagogical practices and new program designs. Method: A narrative summary of published works was used to support the rationale for reciprocal selective integration to increase the impact of physical education, kinesiology, and public health efforts to enhance health and well-being. Results: The practices and programs should be specialized and pedagogically focused to advance integrative, community-based approaches designed to achieve the national physical education standards and improve health and well-being. These new approaches are timely and essential in schools and communities, especially those where children and families experience adversity. Discussion/Conclusion: There are many ways in which selective integration can transpire. A redesign of physical education teacher education is warranted and timely.

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Chapter 1: Setting the Stage—Research into Physical Activity Relationships and Children’s Progress Toward Achievement of the National Standards

Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, and Darla M. Castelli

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Chapter 4 Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Characteristics of Trained Teachers

Erin E. Centeio, Heather Erwin, and Darla M. Castelli

As public health concerns about physical inactivity and childhood obesity continue to rise, researchers are calling for interventions that comprehensively lead to more opportunities to participate in physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics and attitudes of trained physical education teachers during the implementation of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program at the elementary level. Using a collective case study design, interviews, observations, field notes, open-ended survey questions, and an online forum monitoring guided the interpretation of teacher perceptions and development of emergent themes. Qualitative data analysis was conducted for each individual teacher and then across the ten teachers which produced four major themes: (a) Leading the Charge: Ready, Set, Go!, (b) Adoption versus Adaptation: Implementation Varies, (c) Social Media’s Place in the Professional Development (PD) Community, and (d) Keys to Successful Implementation. It can be concluded that, based on these findings, elementary physical education teachers are ready and willing to implement CSPAP. Key factors that may influence this implementation are discussed.