Carolyn E. Barlow, Kerem Shuval, Bijal A. Balasubramanian, Darla E. Kendzor and Kelley Pettee Gabriel
Prolonged sitting time is associated with numerous health outcomes; however, the role of cardiorespiratory fitness (CRF) in these relationships is largely unexplored. The cross-sectional association between reported sitting time and measured CRF was examined in a large study of healthy men and women.
The analytic sample included 4658 men and 1737 women enrolled in the Cooper Center Longitudinal Study. Unadjusted and adjusted multivariable linear regression models were constructed to examine the association between sitting time and CRF, stratified by sex and meeting (or not) meeting physical activity (PA) guidelines.
In men, CRF was not associated with sitting time after adjustment for potential confounders. In contrast, for women, after adjustment there was a significant association between increased sitting time and lower CRF (P for trend <.001). When stratified by meeting or not meeting PA guidelines, there was no association between sitting time and CRF in men. In women, this relationship was statistically significant regardless of PA category (both P for trend < .05).
These results suggest that the association between sitting time and CRF varies by sex. Further, meeting PA guidelines does not appear to modify this relation in either sex.
Darla E. Kendzor, Marlyn Allicock, Michael S. Businelle, Lona F. Sandon, Kelley Pettee Gabriel and Summer G. Frank
The current study evaluated the feasibility and effectiveness of a diet and physical activity intervention for homeless adults.
Shelter residents (N = 32) were randomly assigned to a 4-week diet and physical activity intervention (n = 17) or an assessment-only control group (n = 15). Intervention participants received tailored educational newsletters, pedometers with step goals, and twice daily fruit/vegetable snacks. Key measures included 24-hour dietary recall interviews and accelerometer-measured moderate-to-vigorous intensity physical activity (MVPA).
At baseline, 68.8% of participants were overweight or obese, 93.8% reported food insecurity, and 43.8% reported activity levels below physical activity guidelines. Baseline dietary recall interviews indicated low fruit/vegetable consumption, and elevated intake of added sugar, saturated fat, and sodium relative to current dietary recommendations. During the 4-week study period, intervention participants engaged in significantly greater accelerometer-measured daily MVPA (P < .001) than controls (median = 60 daily minutes p vs. 41 daily minutes). Between groups differences in fruit/vegetable consumption at the end of treatment did not reach statistical significance. Most participants reported that the intervention was helpful for increasing fruit/vegetable intake and physical activity.
Findings highlight the potential to improve dietary quality and increase physical activity among sheltered homeless adults.
Todd A. Smitherman, Patricia M. Dubbert, Karen B. Grothe, Jung Hye Sung, Darla E. Kendzor, Jared P. Reis, Barbara E. Ainsworth, Robert L. Newton Jr., Karen T. Lesniak and Herman A. Taylor Jr.
Physical inactivity has been consistently linked to cardiovascular disease, yet few instruments have been validated for assessment of physical activity in African Americans, a group particularly vulnerable to heart disease. The current study aimed to establish the psychometric properties of the activity survey used in the Jackson Heart Study (JHS) among African Americans, the JHS Physical Activity Cohort survey (JPAC).
Test-retest reliability over 2 weeks was assessed using a convenience sample of 40 African Americans. Convergent validity with accelerometer and pedometer data were assessed in 2 samples from the JHS (N = 404 and 294, respectively).
Test-retest reliability was excellent, with intraclass correlations = .99 for the JPAC total and index scores. Higher JPAC total scores were significantly associated with higher raw accelerometer and pedometer counts. Spearman correlations between JPAC total scores and accelerometer (rho = .24) and pedometer counts (rho = .32) were consistent with these results. Most subscales were significantly correlated with the objective measures. The JPAC total score was most strongly associated with objectively-measured activity.
This study provides support for the reliability and validity of the JPAC as a tool for assessing physical activity among African Americans across a variety of domains.