Chapter 3: The Relationship of Physical Fitness and Motor Competence to Physical Activity
Darla M. Castelli and Julia A. Valley
Chapter 4: A Comparison of Personal Attributes and Experiences among Physically Active and Inactive Children
Darla M. Castelli and Heather E. Erwin
Chapter 7: Selective Integration: Roles for Public Health, Kinesiology, and Physical Education
Darla M. Castelli and Latrice Sales Mitchell
The authors explore the priorities for American physical education in the 21st century and reconsider the role of physical education teacher education. Purpose: This chapter will discuss the potential intersection of kinesiology, physical education, and public health with the assumption that their selective integration has the potential to stimulate the development of innovative pedagogical practices and new program designs. Method: A narrative summary of published works was used to support the rationale for reciprocal selective integration to increase the impact of physical education, kinesiology, and public health efforts to enhance health and well-being. Results: The practices and programs should be specialized and pedagogically focused to advance integrative, community-based approaches designed to achieve the national physical education standards and improve health and well-being. These new approaches are timely and essential in schools and communities, especially those where children and families experience adversity. Discussion/Conclusion: There are many ways in which selective integration can transpire. A redesign of physical education teacher education is warranted and timely.
Large-Scale Physical Education Interventions: Past, Present, and Future
Darla M. Castelli and Ang Chen
A large body of Catherine Ennis’s work is focused on physical education curriculum development. Her approach to curriculum development is unique in that it is completely based on research evidence. The curricula she developed have been field-tested and the completed curriculum is supported with solid research evidence to demonstrate its efficacy in student learning and teacher ease of use. The purpose of this article is to provide an overview and explore opportunities to continue large-scale physical education curriculum intervention studies. The authors first provide a brief review of previous intervention studies by summarizing the findings and discussing implications. They then discuss potential future intervention studies by presenting several topics that are being explored by researchers in current interventions. Finally, they focus on methodology issues involved in designing effective curriculum intervention studies with the idea of adaptive designs as variations of the randomized clinical trial design.
Special Issue: Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs
Edited by Darla M. Castelli, Russell L Carson, and Pamela Hodges Kulinna
Chapter 4 Comprehensive School Physical Activity Programs: Characteristics of Trained Teachers
Erin E. Centeio, Heather Erwin, and Darla M. Castelli
As public health concerns about physical inactivity and childhood obesity continue to rise, researchers are calling for interventions that comprehensively lead to more opportunities to participate in physical activity (PA). The purpose of this study was to examine the characteristics and attitudes of trained physical education teachers during the implementation of a Comprehensive School Physical Activity Program at the elementary level. Using a collective case study design, interviews, observations, field notes, open-ended survey questions, and an online forum monitoring guided the interpretation of teacher perceptions and development of emergent themes. Qualitative data analysis was conducted for each individual teacher and then across the ten teachers which produced four major themes: (a) Leading the Charge: Ready, Set, Go!, (b) Adoption versus Adaptation: Implementation Varies, (c) Social Media’s Place in the Professional Development (PD) Community, and (d) Keys to Successful Implementation. It can be concluded that, based on these findings, elementary physical education teachers are ready and willing to implement CSPAP. Key factors that may influence this implementation are discussed.
Effects of Vigorous Intensity Physical Activity on Mathematics Test Performance
David Phillips, James C. Hannon, and Darla M. Castelli
The effect of an acute bout of physical activity on academic performance in school-based settings is under researched. The purpose of this study was to examine associations between a single, vigorous (70–85%) bout of physical activity completed during physical education on standardized mathematics test performance among 72, eighth grade students at a school in the Southwestern United States. Students received both a physical activity and nonactive condition, in a repeated measures design. Academic performance measures were collected at 30 and 45-minutes post condition. It was hypothesized that students would have greater gains in mathematics test scores post physical activity condition compared with post nonactive condition. Results reported students achieved 11–22% higher math scores at 30 minutes post physical activity condition compared with other time points (45 minutes post PA, 30 and 45 minutes post sedentary) (F(1, 68) = 14.42, p < .001, d = .90). Findings suggest that physical activity may facilitate academic performance in math.
A Preface from the Guest Editors
Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, and Darla M. Castelli
Chapter 1: Setting the Stage—Research into Physical Activity Relationships and Children’s Progress Toward Achievement of the National Standards
Kim C. Graber, Amelia Mays Woods, and Darla M. Castelli
Physical Fitness and Academic Achievement in Third- and Fifth-Grade Students
Darla M. Castelli, Charles H. Hillman, Sarah M. Buck, and Heather E. Erwin
The relationship between physical fitness and academic achievement has received much attention owing to the increasing prevalence of children who are overweight and unfit, as well as the inescapable pressure on schools to produce students who meet academic standards. This study examined 259 public school students in third and fifth grades and found that field tests of physical fitness were positively related to academic achievement. Specifically, aerobic capacity was positively associated with achievement, whereas BMI was inversely related. Associations were demonstrated in total academic achievement, mathematics achievement, and reading achievement, thus suggesting that aspects of physical fitness may be globally related to academic performance in preadolescents. The findings are discussed with regards to maximizing school performance and the implications for educational policies.