Visual and haptic integration has been examined extensively, however little is known about alternative premovement sensory information to help in the anticipatory control of prehension. This study explored the concept of using auditory cues as an alternative premovement cue. Individuals lifted champagne flutes filled with various levels of water; and one group was given a sound cue before lifting. Sounds provided a precue regarding fluid level and hence mass. Results showed that auditory cues were used to predict the “target force” required to lift the masses, as evidenced by scaling of grip rates as a function of mass in the auditory cue group only. It was hypothesized that individuals used the auditory cues to preprogram the grasping forces produced during the lifting movement.
David Antonio Gonzalez, Adam Dubrowski and Heather Carnahan
David Antonio Gonzalez, Stefan Kegel, Tadao Ishikura and Tim Lee
Low-skill golfers coordinate the movements of their head and putter with an allocentric, isodirectional coupling, which is opposite to the allocentric, antidirectional coordination pattern used by experts (Lee, Ishikura, Kegel, Gonzalez, & Passmore, 2008). The present study investigated the effects of four vision conditions (full vision, no vision, target focus, and ball focus) on head-putter coupling in low-skill golfers. Performance in the absence of vision resulted in a level of high isodirectional coupling that was similar to the full vision condition. However, when instructed to focus on the target during the putt, or focus on the ball through a restricted viewing angle, low-skill golfers significantly decoupled the head—putter coordination pattern.. However, outcome measures demonstrated that target focus resulted in poorer performance compared with the other visual conditions, thereby providing overall support for use of a ball focus strategy to enhance coordination and outcome performance. Focus of attention and reduced visual tracking were hypothesized as potential reasons for the decoupling.
David González-Cutre, Álvaro Sicilia, Juan Antonio Moreno and Juan Miguel Fernández-Balboa
The purpose of this study was to analyze the mediating effects of social goals and perceived competence on students’ perceptions of motivational climates and dispositional flow in physical education. At the beginning of the physical education unit, 779 students, 12 to 16 years old, were asked to complete four questionnaires: Perceived Motivational Climate in Sport Questionnaire-2 (PMCSQ-2), which measured the perception of task- and ego-involving climates; the Social Goal Scale–Physical Education (SGS-PE); the sport competence factor of the Physical Self-Perception Profile; and the Dispositional Flow Scale-2 (DFS-2). The results of the structural equation model showed that the task-involving climate positively predicted students’ social goals (i.e., relationship and responsibility goals) as well as their perceived competence. In turn, social goals and perceived competence positively predicted their dispositional flow. Of the total effects of task-involving climate on dispositional flow, 50% of them were direct whereas the other 50% were indirect. The ego-involving climate positively predicted dispositional flow through perceived competence. The results are discussed with reference to the ability of the teacher to create a high degree of motivation for the students so as to help them achieve optimal psychological states and continue to participate in physical activity.