Twenty-five girls and 25 boys (mean age 9.7 ± 0.3 years) each completed a 20- and 30-s Wingate Anaerobic Test (WAnT). Oxygen uptake during the WAnTs, and postexercise blood lactate samples were obtained. Inertia and load-adjusted power variables were higher (18.6–20.1% for peak, and 6.7–7.5% for mean power outputs, p < .05) than the unadjusted values for both the 20- and 30-s WAnTs. The adjusted peak power values were higher (7.7–11.6%, p < .05) in both WAnTs when integrated over 1-s than over 5-s time periods. The aerobic contributions to the tests were lower (p < .05) in the 20-s WAnT (13.7–35.7%) than in the 30-s WAnT (17.7–44.3%) for assumed mechanical efficiencies of 13% and 30%. Postexercise blood lactate concentration after the WAnTs peaked by 2 min. No gender differences (p > .05) in anaerobic performances or peak blood lactate values were detected.
Michael Chia, Neil Armstrong and David Childs
Nicola C. Sutton, David J. Childs, Oded Bar-Or and Neil Armstrong
The purpose of this study was to develop a nonmotorized treadmill sprint test (ExNMT) to assess children’s short-term power output, to establish the test’s repeatability, and to compare the results to corresponding Wingate anaerobic test (WAnT) measurements. Nineteen children (aged 10.9±0.3 years) completed 2 ExNMTs and 2 WAnTs. Statistical analysis revealed coefficients of repeatability for the ExNMT that compared very favorably with the WAnT for both peak power (26.6 vs. 44.5 W) and mean power (15.3 vs. 42.1 W). The validity of the ExNMT as a test of anaerobic performance is reflected by significant correlations (p ≤.05) with the WAnT (peak power, r = 0.82; mean power, r = 0.88) and reinforced by the relatively high post-exercise blood lactate concentrations (7.1 ± 1.3 vs. 5.6 ± 1.5 mmol · L−1 for the ExNMT and WAnT, respectively). This study has developed a promising laboratory running test with which to examine young people’s short-term power output.
Samantha G. Fawkner, Neil Armstrong, David J. Childs and Joanne R. Welsman
The purpose of this study was to assess the reliability of the ventilatory threshold using visual analysis (TVent) and a computerised v-slope method (TV - slope) with children. Twenty-two children completed 2 ramp incremental cycling tests to voluntary exhaustion. Oxygen uptake (V̇O2) at TVent was derived independently by two observers using plots of V̇E/V̇CO2, V̇E/V̇O2, PETO2 and PETCO2, V̇E and RER as a function of time. V̇O2 at TV - slope was determined by both observers using linear regression analysis of the plot of V̇CO2 against V̇O2. A TV – slope was determined for each test, although a TVent could not be found by one of the observers in 7 of the 44 tests. Inter-observer reliability was slightly better for TV - slope, and both methods had similar test-retest coefficients of repeatability (0.19 and 0.22 L • min−1, TVent and TV - slope, respectively). Although TV slope may be the method of choice, investigators should consider the 95% limits of agreement when interpreting their data.
Michael C. Riddell, Sara L. Partington, Nicole Stupka, David Armstrong, C. Rennie and Mark A. Tarnopolsky
Compared to males, females oxidize proportionately more fat and less carbohydrate during endurance exercise performed in the fasted state. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that there may also be gender differences in exogenous carbohydrate (CHOexo) oxidation during exercise. Healthy, young males (n = 7) and females (n = 7) each completed 2 exercise trials (90 min cycle ergometry at 60% VO2peak), 1 week apart. Females were eumenorrheic and were tested in the midfollicular phase of their menstrual cycle. Subjects drank intermittently either 8% CHOexo (1 g glucose · kg · h−1) enriched with U-13C glucose or an artificially sweetened placebo during the trial. Whole-body substrate oxidation was determined from RER, urinary urea excretion, and the ratio of 13C:12C in expired gas during the final 60 min of exercise. During the placebo trial, fat oxidation was higher in females than in males (0.42 · 0.07 vs. 0.32 · 0.09 g · min−1 · kg LBM–1 × 10–2) at 30 min of exercise (p < .05). When averaged over the final 60 min of exercise, the relative proportions of fat, total carbohydrate, and protein were similar between groups. During CHOexo ingestion, both the ratio of 13C:12C in expired gas (p < .05) and the proportion of energy derived from CHOexo relative to LBM (p < .05) were higher in females compared to males at 75- and 90-min exercise. When averaged over the final 60 min of exercise, the percentage of CHOexo to the total energy contribution tended to be higher in females (14.3 · 1.2%) than in males (11.2 · 1.2%; p = .09). The reduction in endogenous CHO oxidation with CHOexo intake was also greater in females (12.9 · 3.1%) than in males (5.1 · 2.0%; p = .05). Compared to males, females may oxidize a greater relative proportion of CHOexo during endurance exercise which, in turn, may spare more endogenous fuel. Based on these observations, ingested carbohydrate may be a particularly beneficial source of fuel during endurance exercise for females.
Alon Eliakim, Bareket Falk, Neil Armstrong, Fátima Baptista, David G. Behm, Nitzan Dror, Avery D. Faigenbaum, Kathleen F. Janz, Jaak Jürimäe, Amanda L. McGowan, Dan Nemet, Paolo T. Pianosi, Matthew B. Pontifex, Shlomit Radom-Aizik, Thomas Rowland and Alex V. Rowlands
This commentary highlights 23 noteworthy publications from 2018, selected by leading scientists in pediatric exercise science. These publications have been deemed as significant or exciting in the field as they (a) reveal a new mechanism, (b) highlight a new measurement tool, (c) discuss a new concept or interpretation/application of an existing concept, or (d) describe a new therapeutic approach or clinical tool in youth. In some cases, findings in adults are highlighted, as they may have important implications in youth. The selected publications span the field of pediatric exercise science, specifically focusing on: aerobic exercise and training; neuromuscular physiology, exercise, and training; endocrinology and exercise; resistance training; physical activity and bone strength; growth, maturation, and exercise; physical activity and cognition; childhood obesity, physical activity, and exercise; pulmonary physiology or diseases, exercise, and training; immunology and exercise; cardiovascular physiology and disease; and physical activity, inactivity, and health.