This paper reports the results of an empirical study that draws on a means-end perspective to examine the factors influencing the school choice decisions of collegiate student athletes. A sample of 27 NCAA Division I collegiate football players were questioned to identify the attributes that differentiated the school they selected from the others they had considered attending. The interviewing technique known as laddering was then used to link the salient attributes of the chosen school to the consequences and personal values important to the athlete. An analysis of the resulting data provided unique insight into the means-end relationships that underlie students' selection of competing athletic programs. A discussion of the study findings outlined the implications of this investigation and the means-end approach for future recruiting and research efforts.
David B. Klenosky, Thomas J. Templin and Josh A. Troutmam
Heather A. Starnes, Philip J. Troped, David B. Klenosky and Angela M. Doehring
To provide a synthesis of research on trails and physical activity from the public health, leisure sciences, urban planning, and transportation literatures.
A search of databases was conducted to identify studies published between 1980 and 2008.
52 studies were identified. The majority were cross-sectional (92%) and published after 1999 (77%). The evidence for the effects of trails on physical activity was mixed among 3 intervention and 5 correlational studies. Correlates of trail use were examined in 13 studies. Several demographic (eg, race, education, income) and environmental factors (eg, land-use mix and distance to trail) were related to trail use. Evidence from 31 descriptive studies identified several facilitators and barriers to trail use. Economic studies (n = 5) examining trails in terms of health or recreational outcomes found trails are cost-effective and produce significant economic benefits.
There is a growing body of evidence demonstrating important factors that should be considered in promoting trail use, yet the evidence for positive effects of trails on physical activity is limited. Further research is needed to evaluate the effects of trails on physical activity. In addition, trail studies that include children and youth, older adults, and racial and ethnic minorities are a research priority.
Stephanie L. Orstad, Meghan H. McDonough, David B. Klenosky, Marifran Mattson and Philip J. Troped
Promoting use of community trails is a recommended strategy for increasing population levels of physical activity. Correlates of walking and cycling for recreation or transportation differ, though few studies have compared correlates of trailbased physical activity for recreation and transportation purposes. This study examined associations of demographic, social, and perceived built environmental factors with trail use for recreation and transportation and whether associations were moderated by age, gender, and prior trail use.
Adults (N = 1195) using 1 of 5 trails in Massachusetts responded to an intercept survey. We used multiple linear and logistic regression models to examine associations with trail use.
Respondents’ mean age was 44.9 years (standard deviation = 12.5), 55.3% were female, and 82.0% were white. Age (longer-term users only), trail use with others, travel time to the trail, and trail design were significantly associated with use for recreation (P < .05). Age, gender, trail safety (longer-term users only), travel time to the trail, trail design (younger users only), and trail beauty were associated with use for transportation (P < .05).
Some common correlates were found for recreational and transportation trail use, whereas some variables were uniquely associated with use for 1 purpose. Tailored strategies are suggested to promote trail use for recreation and transportation.
Kosuke Tamura, Jeffrey S. Wilson, Robin C. Puett, David B. Klenosky, William A. Harper and Philip J. Troped
Background: Concurrent use of accelerometers and global positioning system (GPS) data can be used to quantify physical activity (PA) occurring on trails. This study examined associations of trail use with PA and sedentary behavior (SB) and quantified on trail PA using a combination of accelerometer and GPS data. Methods: Adults (N = 142) wore accelerometer and GPS units for 1–4 days. Trail use was defined as a minimum of 2 consecutive minutes occurring on a trail, based on GPS data. We examined associations between trail use and PA and SB. On trail minutes of light-intensity, moderate-intensity, and vigorous-intensity PA, and SB were quantified in 2 ways, using accelerometer counts only and with a combination of GPS speed and accelerometer data. Results: Trail use was positively associated with total PA, moderate-intensity PA, and light-intensity PA (P < .05). On trail vigorous-intensity PA minutes were 346% higher when classified with the combination versus accelerometer only. Light-intensity PA, moderate-intensity PA, and SB minutes were 15%, 91%, and 85% lower with the combination, respectively. Conclusions: Adult trail users accumulated more PA on trail use days than on nontrail use days, indicating the importance of these facilities for supporting regular PA. The combination of GPS and accelerometer data for quantifying on trail activity may be more accurate than accelerometer data alone and is useful for classifying intensity of activities such as bicycling.