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Dean Dudley, Victoria Goodyear and David Baxter

Background:

The United Nations Educational, Cultural and Scientific Organization (UNESCO) recognizes quality physical education (QPE) must, along with physical, social and affective educative goals, seek to improve the health status of youth (UNESCO, 2015). Health-Optimizing Physical Education (HOPE) is a model of physical education (PE) that seeks this goal but is creating much debate in the discipline (Sallis et al., 2012).

Purpose:

The aim of this paper is to present a conceptual assessment framework for QPE and HOPE on which future assessment protocols may be based that serve both health and educative goals.

Methods/Data analysis:

Policy and literature pertaining to QPE and HOPE were reviewed and compared for similarities and differences. This was followed by an analysis of literature on assessment in the health and education disciplines. These analyses provided the authors with the insight to propose a new model of assessment for HOPE models to implement QPE.

Results:

Many similarities exist in the policy of QPE and the published literature on HOPE. However, the measurement model of assessment can often circumvent two important assessment functions for education settings that need to be addressed in a wider QPE and Models-Based Practice (MBP) context. Conclusions: HOPE models were established using an interventionist mindset and are therefore well suited to integrating well-defined MBP pedagogies as appropriate ‘intervening’ strategies by using a clinical approach to teaching and assessment. To date, they have lacked an assessment framework that has been capable of addressing both the health and educative goals that both HOPE and MBP seek to achieve. This paper provides new insight by reimagining the role MBPs and assessment practices have to play in the health and education nexus.

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Leon Mabire, Ramakrishnan Mani, Lizhou Liu, Hilda Mulligan and David Baxter

Background:

Brisk walking is the most popular activity for obesity management for adults. We aimed to identify whether participant age, sex and body mass index (BMI) influenced the effectiveness of brisk walking.

Methods:

A search of 9 databases was conducted for randomized controlled trials (RCTs). Two investigators selected RCTs reporting on change in body weight, BMI, waist circumference, fat mass, fat-free mass, and body fat percentage following a brisk walking intervention in obese adults.

Results:

Of the 5072 studies screened, 22 met the eligibility criteria. The pooled mean differences were: weight loss, –2.13 kg; BMI, –0.96 kg/m2; waist circumference, –2.83 cm; fat mass, –2.59 kg; fat-free mass, 0.29 kg; and body fat percentage, –1.38%. Meta-regression of baseline BMI showed no effect on changes.

Conclusions:

Brisk walking can create a clinically significant reduction in body weight, BMI, waist circumference, and fat mass for obese men and women aged under 50 years. Obese women aged over 50 years can achieve modest losses, but gains in fat-free mass reduce overall change in body weight. Further research is required for men aged over 50 years and on the influence of BMI for all ages and sexes.

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Geraldine Naughton, David Greene, Daniel Courteix and Adam Baxter-Jones

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Hilda F. Mulligan, Leigh A. Hale, Lisa Whitehead and G. David Baxter

People with disability are insufficiently physically active for health. This study identified the volume, quality, and findings of research that exposes environmental and personal barriers of physical activity participation for people with neurological conditions. CINAHL, Sport Discus, EMBASE, Medline, and AMED were systematically searched between 1999 and week one 2010 for peer reviewed studies that fit the aim of the review. Identified barriers to physical activity participation were categorized into the World Health Organization’s ICF framework of domains. Of the 2,061 studies uncovered in the search, 29 met inclusion criteria and 28 met quality appraisal. Findings showed that barriers to physical activity participation arise from personal factors that, coupled with lack of motivational support from the environment, challenge perceptions of safety and confidence to exercise.