The discus throw is a complex track and field event combining linear and angular motion. Success in the discus throw necessitates being strong and explosive; but due to the complexity of the event, throwers must be technically sound. The basic throwing technique employed by all discus throwers is similar, but variations are present due to anthropometrics, physical abilities, training, and error influences. Working with a Paralympic discus thrower, that has a physical disability, is a unique coaching challenge that makes it important to individualize the technical model to meet the physical abilities of the athlete.
Lawrence W. Judge and David Bellar
David Bellar, Todd A. Gilson, and James C. Hannon
Higher education is in a period of flux. For many public institutions, state support has decreased over the past decade, resulting in the notion of doing more with less. Using an inverted triangle approach, this article examines how both institutions and departments are coping with their present reality using innovative and entrepreneurial ideas. First, the story of how public institutions in the state of Illinois are responding to decreased state appropriations and declining K–12 enrollments is discussed. Second, a rich example of how one institution completed the strategic planning process—from conceptualization to implementation—is shared. Finally, one department’s multifaceted plan to handle declining state support is shared.
Lawrence W. Judge, David Bellar, Erin Gilreath, and Laura Simon
Ben D. Kern, David Bellar, and Wesley J. Wilson
Purpose: The purpose was to examine secondary physical education teachers’ strength and conditioning (SC) knowledge and evaluate associations between SC teaching role, professional preparation, and development. Method: A knowledge survey was developed/validated and distributed to 2,189 middle/high school teachers, with 605 providing complete data. Results: Seventy-five percent of participants reported serving an SC-related teaching role, and mean SC knowledge was 6.77 correct out of 15 (45%). Participants with SC certification, who taught an SC unit/course, who supervised an SC sport program, and who taught in high school performed significantly better. Physical education teacher education preparation, including exercise physiology and weightlifting activity courses, was a significant predictor of SC knowledge. Professional development, such as SC online coursework, meeting with SC professionals, and reading SC publications, was also a significant predictor. Conclusion: To support physical education teachers’ SC knowledge, physical education teacher education programs should include SC-related course offerings, and school administrators should consider offering professional development to physical education teachers who serve in SC roles.
Ben D. Kern, David Bellar, Wesley J. Wilson, and Samiyah Rasheed
Purpose: To examine socialization experiences of physical educators who deliver strength and conditioning (S&C) programming, particularly the development of subjective theories, expertise, orientations, and perceived mattering. Methods: Thirty-one secondary school physical educators providing S&C instruction/supervision as part of required duties completed in-depth interviews with Occupational Socialization Theory as a guiding framework for analysis. Results: Themes developed were (a) acculturation and organizational socialization influence beliefs, (b) S&C professional development is scarce, (c) S&C in physical education is a sporting endeavor, (d) blurred lines between teaching and coaching, and (e) S&C-related programs matter. Discussion: Physical educators delivering S&C programming lack adequate preservice preparation and professional development, and experience both role conflict and decreased marginalization. Physical education teacher education programs should offer more formal S&C training for safe and effective instruction/supervision. Schools should provide S&C-related professional development to maximize student learning and safety and avoid potential legal liability.
Lawrence W. Judge, David Bellar, Jeffrey Petersen, Erin Gilreath, and Elizabeth Wanless
As national anti-doping organizations (NADOs) adopt preventative measures to complement detection-based deterrence methods, understanding coaches’ attitudes toward drugs in sport will take on a new importance. This study was conducted to measure coaches’ attitudes in the sport of track and field toward performance enhancing drug (PED) use and drug testing. A total of 254 track and field coaches (Age: 33.4 yrs ±9.7) completed a 51-item survey. Coaches who were certified reported they felt more knowledgeable about PED use (r s = .168, p = .004) and that they had learned about PED use and testing through the USA Track and Field (USATF) coaches education program (r s = .220, p < .001). USATF certified coaches also reported a stronger perception that the coach plays a key role in PED deterrence (r s = .158, p = .006). These findings suggest that national sport governing bodies (NGBs) like USATF have taken significant steps to educate prospective coaches on the topic of PED’s and drug testing and these measures have positively impacted coaches.
Lawrence W. Judge, Kimberly J. Bodey, David Bellar, Christine Brooks, and Terry Crawford
In recent years, large scale sport organizations and national governing bodies have produced coaching education programs to prepare coaches to teach and mentor athletes. The purpose of this study was to examine: a) track & field coaches’ familiarity with the National Standards for Sport Coaches, b) the alignment of United States Track & Field (USATF) Developmental, Level I, and Level II coaching education programs with the National Standards for Sport Coaches, and c) the alignment of USATF Developmental, Level I, and Level II coaching education programs with coaches’ perceived needs for subject matter training. A 39-item survey was administered during a USATF certification course to measure coaches’ familiarity and perceptions. The results showed the vast majority of coaches (75.2%) were not familiar with the National Standards. At the time of assessment, the Developmental, Level I, and Level II courses were partially aligned with 25 of 40 standards at the Level 1, Level 3, or Level 5 accreditation levels. The courses were not aligned with 15 of 40 standards at any accreditation level. The majority of deficiencies existed in Domain 2: Safety and Injury Prevention, Domain 7: Organization and Administration, and Domain 8: Evaluation. While the USATF coaching education curriculum is partially aligned with many, but not all, of the national standards, the curriculum appears to contain subject matter training that coaches perceived as needed. Curricular revisions, including future directions of the USATF coaching education program, such as new courses and innovative use of technology, are presented.
Lawrence W. Judge, David Bellar, Kimberly J. Bodey, Bruce Craig, Michael Prichard, and Elizabeth Wanless
The purpose of this study was to determine if NCAA Division I and III men’s basketball programs were in compliance with recommended pre- and post-activity stretching protocols. Questionnaires were sent to 500 NCAA Division I and Division III programs in the United States. Seventy-six coaches (75 males & 1 female) participated in the study. Chi-Square analysis (χ2(3,n=69) = 42.29, p≤0.001) indicated a greater combined percentage of static/pnf/ballistic stretches (10.14%, n=7) and combination of stretches (57.97%, n=40) than expected as compared to dynamic stretches (31.89%, n=22). Participants were asked during what period (pre- or post-activity) stretching should be emphasized. The results were significantly different from expected (χ2(4,n=76) = 129.28, p≤0.001), with a greater percentage of pre-activity stretches (26.31%, n=20) and both pre- and post-activity of stretches (60.52%, n=46) being reported as compared to post-activity stretches (13.15%, n=10). Some results seemed to be in conflict with current recommendations in the literature regarding pre-activity stretching practices.