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David Black

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John Nauright and David Black

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Katherine Elizabeth Black, Alistair David Black and Dane Frances Baker

Rugby is a worldwide intermittent team sport. Players tend to be heavier than the majority of similar team sport athletes on whom the dietary guidelines have been developed. Therefore, the aim of the current review was to describe the intakes of rugby union players. Article databases were searched up to February 2017 and were included if they were published in English and reported dietary intakes of male rugby union players. Of the research articles identified, energy intakes were lower than two of three studies that reported intakes and expenditure, which would suggest the players were losing weight that is somewhat supported by the decreases in skinfolds seen during preseason. However, it should also be noted that there are errors in both the measurement of energy intakes and expenditure. Carbohydrate intakes ranged from 2.6 to 6.5 g·kg−1·day−1, which is lower than the current relative to body mass recommendations; however, this would not be classed as a low-carbohydrate diet. The consistently low intakes of carbohydrate suggest that these intake levels maybe sufficient for performance, given the players greater body mass or there are errors in the measurements. However, there is currently no evidence for the carbohydrate needs of rugby union players in terms of performance. The lower intakes than expenditure would suggest the players were losing weight. Previous research shows that rugby union players lose body fat during preseason training.

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Michael A. Riley and David P. Black

Adaptation to prisms can produce a change in felt arm position, termed proprioceptive shift. We studied the effects of prism-induced proprioceptive shift on interlimb rhythmic coordination performed under proprioceptive guidance, in the absence of vision. Relative to interlimb rhythmic coordination performed before prism exposure, the observed steady states of relative phase for postexposure coordination were shifted by a small but reliable amount. The shift was in the direction expected, given the direction of optical displacement. The amount of variability of interlimb rhythmic coordination was unaffected by prism exposure. The results suggest that the same spatial frames of reference altered by prism adaptation are involved in the production of interlimb rhythmic coordination patterns.

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David P. Black, Michael A. Riley and Christopher K. McCord

The authors conducted two experiments that served as a test bed for applying the recently developed uncontrolled manifold (UCM) approach to rhythmic motor coordination, which has been extensively investigated from a coordination dynamics perspective. The results of two experiments, one investigating withinperson and one investigating between-persons rhythmic movement coordination, identified synergistic behaviors in both of those types of coordination. Stronger synergies were identified for in-phase than antiphase coordination, at the endpoints of the movement cycles compared with the midpoints, for movement frequencies closer to the intrinsic frequency of the coordinated limbs, and for within-person coordination. Frequency detuning did not weaken the strength of interlimb rhythmic coordination synergies. The results suggest the synergistic behavior captured by the UCM analysis may be identifiable with the strength of coupling between the coordinated limbs. The UCM analysis appears to distinguish coordination parameters that affect coupling strength from parameters that weaken coordination attractors.

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Kimberlee A. Gretebeck, Kaitlyn Radius, David R. Black, Randall J. Gretebeck, Rosemary Ziemba and Lawrence T. Glickman

Background:

Regular walking improves overall health and functional ability of older adults, yet most are sedentary. Dog ownership/pet responsibility may increase walking in older adults. Goals of this study were to identify factors that influence older adult walking and compare physical activity, functional ability and psychosocial characteristics by dog ownership status.

Methods:

In this cross-sectional study, older adults (65−95 years of age, n = 1091) completed and returned questionnaires via postal mail. Measures included: Physical Activity Scale for the Elderly, Physical Functioning Questionnaire and Theory of Planned Behavior Questionnaire.

Results:

Dog owner/dog walkers (n = 77) reported significantly (P < .05) more total walking, walking frequency, leisure and total physical activity and higher total functional ability than dog owner/nondog walkers (n = 83) and nondog owners (n = 931). Dog owner/nondog walkers reported lower intention and perceived behavioral control and a less positive attitude than dog owner/dog walkers (P < .05).

Conclusions:

Dog owner/dog walkers were significantly different than the nondog walker groups in nearly every study variable. Many dog owners (48.1%) reported walking their dogs regularly and the dog owner/dog walkers participated in nearly 50% more total walking than the 2 nondog walking groups, suggesting that pet obligation may provide a purposeful activity that motivates some older dog owners to walk.

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James M. Carter, Tom Loney, Sam D. Blacker, Graham F. Nicholson and David M. Wilkinson

Background:

Despite the importance of hydration, limited research on the topic has been undertaken in Arabic populations.

Methods:

Study 1. Five sequential daily midmorning urine samples were provided by 88 adult military cadets and 32 school-based adolescents. Hydration thresholds were produced using percentiles of estimated urine osmolality (Uosm) and urine color (Ucol). Study 2. The authors assessed 1,077 midmorning urine samples from 120 military cadets and 52 adolescents for the Uosm:Ucol relationship using regression. Study 3. The authors conducted a 4-wk hydration campaign in which 21 adolescents participated, providing urine samples before (PreC), at the end of (EndC), and 2 wk after the campaign (PostC).

Results:

Study 1. Euhydration (41–60th percentile) was 881–970 mOsmol/kg in adults and 821–900 mOsmol/kg in adolescents. Study 2. In both cohorts, Uosm and Ucol were associated (p < .01): adults R 2 = .33, adolescents R 2 = .59. Study 3. Urine osmolality was significantly higher PreC than at EndC and PostC.

Conclusions:

Urinary output of Arabic adolescents and military cadets was more concentrated than frequently recommended for euhydration. Further work in similar populations is required to determine if these values represent hypohydration or merely reflect dietary and cultural differences. In male Arabic adolescents and adults, Ucol was an adequate indicator of hydration status. Favorable hydration changes were made after a school-based health campaign.

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Ian Craig Perkins, Sarah Anne Vine, Sam David Blacker and Mark Elisabeth Theodorus Willems

We examined the effect of New Zealand blackcurrant (NZBC) extract on high-intensity intermittent running and postrunning lactate responses. Thirteen active males (age: 25 ± 4 yrs, height: 1.82 ± 0.07 m, body mass: 81 ± 14 kg, V̇O2max: 56 ± 4 ml∙kg-1∙min-1, v V̇O2max: 17.6 ± 0.8 km∙h-1) performed a treadmill running protocol to exhaustion, which consisted of stages with 6 × 19 s of sprints with 15 s of low-intensity running between sprints. Interstage rest time was 1 min and stages were repeated with increasing sprint speeds. Subjects consumed capsuled NZBC extract (300 mg∙day-1 CurraNZ; containing 105 mg anthocyanin) or placebo for 7 days (double-blind, randomized, crossover design, wash-out at least 14 days). Blood lactate was collected for 30 min postexhaustion. NZBC increased total running distance by 10.6% (NZBC: 4282 ± 833 m, placebo: 3871 ± 622 m, p = .02), with the distance during sprints increased by 10.8% (p = .02). Heart rate, oxygen uptake, lactate and rating of perceived exertion were not different between conditions for the first 4 stages completed by all subjects. At exhaustion, blood lactate tended to be higher for NZBC (NZBC: 6.01 ± 1.07 mmol∙L-1, placebo: 5.22 ± 1.52 mmol∙L-1, p = .07). There was a trend for larger changes in lactate following 15 min (NZBC: -2.89 ± 0.51 mmol∙L-1, placebo: -2.46 ± 0.39 mmol∙L-1, p = .07) of passive recovery. New Zealand blackcurrant extract (CurraNZ) may enhance performance in sports characterized by high-intensity intermittent exercise as greater distances were covered with repeated sprints, there was higher lactate at exhaustion, and larger changes in lactate during early recovery after repeated sprints to exhaustion.