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Prevailing Attitudes Towards Sport, Physical Exercise and Society in the 1870s: Impressions from Canadian Periodicals

David Brown

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Canadian Imperialism and Sporting Exchanges: The Nineteen-Century Cultural Experience of Cricket and Lacrosse

David Brown

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Pierre Bourdieu’s “Masculine Domination” Thesis and the Gendered Body in Sport and Physical Culture

David Brown

This paper explores the central thesis of one of Pierre Bourdieu’s last texts before his death in 2001, La Domination Masculine (1999). This text was subsequently translated and published in English in 2001 as Masculine Domination. I present the view that this text is not merely his only sustained commentary on gender relations but a potentially important intellectual contribution to the way in which we might view the embodiment of gender relations in sport and physical culture. Accordingly, I examine Bourdieu’s relational thesis of masculine domination as a three-part process of observation, somatization, and naturalization. I then give consideration to how sociologists of sport might use such critical analytical tools to render more transparent what Bourdieu refers to as the “illusio” of this phenomenon that is constructed by the practical everyday embodied enactments of gender relations in sport and physical culture.

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Militarism and Canadian Private Education: Ideal and Practice, 1861-1918

David W. Brown

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The Rise and Fall of Rugby Football League in Nova Scotia 1946-1956

David W. Brown

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Reproducing Gender? Intergenerational Links and the Male PE Teacher as a Cultural Conduit in Teaching Physical Education

David Brown and John Evans

Drawing on illustrations from a recent life history study that focused on male student teachers as they negotiated their way through a 1-year postgraduate certificate in education (PGCE) physical education teacher training course at a university in England, this paper explores how teachers are implicated in the social construction of gender relations in teaching physical education and school sport. The perspective forwarded is that the embodied gendered dispositions student teachers bring into the profession constitute a powerful influence on their professional behavior, and that the development and legitimation of these dispositions might be traced to key relationships with other physical education and coaching professionals. In so doing, we identify key moments in a process of cultural reproduction and conclude that teachers might be viewed as intergenerational living links or cultural conduits in the construction and transmission of particular gender orientations and practices in the profession. We conclude that future research needs to be intergenerational in focus if we are to better understand how these links act as channels in reproducing gender relations and how we might rupture and challenge them.

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Recommended Levels of Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Overweight and Obese Adults in the United States, 2005

Gregory W. Heath and David W. Brown

Background:

Since overweight (25 ≤ BMI < 30) and obesity (BMI ≥ 30 Kg/m2) are associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL) and regular physical activity is associated with higher levels of HRQOL, the authors examined the relationship between physical activity and HRQOL among overweight and obese adults (age ≥ 18 years) residing in the United States.

Methods:

Using the 2005 BRFSS survey, they examined the independent relationship between recommended physical activity and measures of HRQOL developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention among 283,562 adults age 18 years or older with overweight or obesity. Measures of physical activity, height, weight, and HRQOL were self-reported. Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals adjusted for age, race/ethnicity, sex, education, smoking status, chronic disease, and body-mass index.

Results:

The proportion of adults with overweight and obesity who attained recommended levels of physical activity had higher levels of HRQOL than physically inactive adults for all age, racial/ethnic, and sex groups. After multi-variable adjustment, overweight and obese adults who met the recommended level of physical activity had higher levels of HRQOL than physically inactive adults across all age strata.

Conclusions:

These results highlight the HRQOL role that physical activity can have among overweight and obese persons despite their excess body weight.

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Measuring Presenteeism: Which Questionnaire to Use in Physical Activity Research?

Helen Elizabeth Brown, Nicola Burton, Nicholas David Gilson, and Wendy Brown

Background:

An emerging area of interest in workplace health is presenteeism; the measurable extent to which physical or psychosocial symptoms, conditions and disease adversely affect the work productivity of those who choose to remain at work. Given established links between presenteeism and health, and health and physical activity, presenteeism could be an important outcome in workplace physical activity research. This study provides a narrative review of questionnaires for use in such research.

Methods:

Eight self-report measures of presenteeism were identified. Information regarding development, constructs measured and psychometric properties was extracted from relevant articles.

Results:

Questionnaires were largely self-administered, had 4–44 items, and recall periods ranging from 1 week to 1 year. Items were identified as assessing work performance, physical tolerance, psychological well-being and social or role functioning. Samples used to test questionnaires were predominantly American male employees, with an age range of 30–59 years. All instruments had undergone psychometric assessment, most commonly discriminant and construct validity.

Conclusion:

Based on instrument characteristics, the range of conceptual foci covered and acceptable measurement properties, the Health and Work Questionnaire, Work Ability Index, and Work Limitations Questionnaire are suggested as most suitable for further exploring the relationship between physical activity and presenteeism.

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Relationships Between Engaging in Recommended Levels of Physical Activity and Health-Related Quality of Life Among Hypertensive Adults

David W. Brown, David R. Brown, Gregory W. Heath, David G. Moriarty, Lina Balluz, and Wayne H. Giles

Background:

Hypertension (HTN), which affects more than 65 million Americans, is associated with poor health-related quality of life (HRQOL). Regular physical activity (PA) has been shown to reduce blood pressure and is associated with higher levels of HRQOL.

Methods:

Using self-reports from 60,321 hypertensive adults age 18 y or older who participated in the 2003 Behavioral Risk Factor Surveillance Survey, we examined the independent relationship between engaging in recommended levels of moderate or vigorous PA and four measures of HRQOL developed by the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention.

Results:

For all age and racial/ethnic groups and both sexes, the proportion of hypertensive adults with 14 or more unhealthy days (physical or mental) in the past month was significantly lower among those who attained recommended levels of PA than among physically inactive adults.

Conclusions:

Participation in regular PA is one of several lifestyle strategies available to control and prevent HTN. These results suggest that PA is associated with higher levels of HRQOL among adults with HTN and highlight the importance of health programs that promote participation in regular PA.

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Are We Chained to Our Desks? Describing Desk-Based Sitting Using a Novel Measure of Occupational Sitting

Gemma Cathrine Ryde, Helen Elizabeth Brown, Nicholas David Gilson, and Wendy J. Brown

Background:

Prolonged occupational sitting is related to poor health outcomes. Detailed data on sitting time at desks are required to understand and effectively influence occupational sitting habits.

Methods:

Full-time office employees were recruited (n = 105; mean age 40.9 ± 11.5 years; BMI 26.1 ± 3.9, 65% women). Sitting at the desk and in other work contexts was measured using a sitting pad and ActivPAL for an entire working week. Employees used a diary to record work hours. Time spent at work, sitting at work and at the desk; number of sit to stand transitions at the desk; and number of bouts of continuous sitting at the desk < 20 and > 60 minutes, were calculated.

Results:

Average time spent at work was 8.7 ± 0.8 hours/day with 67% spent sitting at the desk (5.8 ± 1.2 hours/day), and 4% in other workplace settings. On average, employees got up from their desks 3 times/hour (29 ± 13/day). Sitting for more than 60 consecutive minutes occurred infrequently (0.69 ± 0.62 times/day), with most sit to stands (80%; 23 ± 14) occurring before 20 minutes of continual sitting.

Conclusion:

The findings provide highly detailed insights into desk-based sitting habits, highlighting large proportions of time spent sitting at desks, but with frequent interruptions.