Despite the exercise benefits, disparities among diverse older adults continue to exist, where African American women have the lowest percentage of any population group in meeting national recommended activity guidelines. Drawing on the philosophical tradition of phronesis (practical reasoning) introduced by Aristotle, we studied perceptions of the exercise value among 14 older African American women. Three themes included: (1) exercise goals (e.g., effort exerted), (2) exercise reasons (e.g., health benefits, enjoyment and convenience, and activity recommendation), and (3) inactivity reasons (e.g., health issues, lack of motivation, and family responsibilities/priorities). Although most women reported being active, only three participants met the Healthy People 2020 guidelines for aerobic and muscle-strengthening activities, while two individuals were inactive. Exercise promoters should consider the values that motivate older African American women to exercise, such as the provision of accessible, nondiscriminatory exercise facilities, and not to exercise, such as concerns about neighborhood safety, in designing programs.
Maria Kosma, David Buchanan and Jan Hondzinski
Thomas S. Buchanan, David G. Lloyd, Kurt Manal and Thor F. Besier
This paper provides an overview of forward dynamic neuromusculoskeletal modeling. The aim of such models is to estimate or predict muscle forces, joint moments, and/or joint kinematics from neural signals. This is a four-step process. In the first step, muscle activation dynamics govern the transformation from the neural signal to a measure of muscle activation—a time varying parameter between 0 and 1. In the second step, muscle contraction dynamics characterize how muscle activations are transformed into muscle forces. The third step requires a model of the musculoskeletal geometry to transform muscle forces to joint moments. Finally, the equations of motion allow joint moments to be transformed into joint movements. Each step involves complex nonlinear relationships. The focus of this paper is on the details involved in the first two steps, since these are the most challenging to the biomechanician. The global process is then explained through applications to the study of predicting isometric elbow moments and dynamic knee kinetics.